Dating Joan Rivers

Free Things to do in Lisbon.

2020.10.05 23:16 travelcalendar Free Things to do in Lisbon.

Free Things to do in Lisbon.

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Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, is famous for its narrow streets with trams, melancholic fado music, rich colours and the longest bridge in Europe, named after the great traveller Vasco da Gama. Is it worth going there? Of course! What's worth seeing? First of all, there are some great places to visit where you won't pay a single euro.
1. Belem
it is one of Lisbon's most attractive tourist districts. There are many attractions and monuments here, including the Hierominite Monastery, the Presidential Palace, the Carriage Museum, the Belem Tower, the monument to the Explorers and the magnificent gardens. The architecture of this place – floors, fountains, avenues-is especially beautiful. In addition, it is here that the most famous Cookies in Portugal are produced – Pasteis de nata (Pasteis de Belem). Cookie baking is associated with the Hierominite order, and the origins of the production date back to 1837. Today we can try these delicacies at Casa Pastéis de Belém. The well-known Patisserie is located near the Hierominite church and, despite the crisis, is thriving, you have to wait in a long queue to find a table. To get to Bele'm we can choose Tram No. 15 or buses (714, 729, 743)

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2. Jerónimos Monastery
one of the most valuable monuments in the entire country. Its origins date back to the 16th century, when King Manuel I The Happy ruled Portugal. No wonder, then, that the building is considered a pearl of the Manueline style, which is characterized by numerous decorations and Moorish ornamentation. In 1501, the king ordered the construction of a monastery in place of the former chapel of Ermida do Restelo. The gesture was meant to be a gesture of thanksgiving to Vasco da Gama, for a happy trip to India. Until the mid-20th century, the monastery was under the care of the Jerónimos order, and in 1983 it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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3. Electricity Museum
this museum is completely free. It is located in a large post-industrial building on the river that was originally a power station (1900), and today shows the development of electricity and its effects. The museum is located on the outskirts of Bele'm, on Avenida de Brasilia and is open Tuesday to Saturday.

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4. Berardo Museum
the second free museum is the Berardo located on Praça do Império - in the Belem Cultural Center (opposite the Hierominite monastery). The museum displays works by artists such as Salvador Dali, Andy Warhol (portrait of Judy Garland), Pablo Picasso and Joan Miró. The collections include about 250 works – photographs, paintings, sculptures and installations.

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5. Edward VII Park
the huge (26 ha) park located in the northern part of the city offers not only the opportunity to relax among the greenery, but also beautiful views (it is located on a hill). The park was named after the British King Edward VII, who came to Lisbon at the beginning of the century to improve relations between the countries. The park contains 2 palm trees, a pond and a sports pavilion dedicated to Carlos Lopez, the Portuguese athlete who won the marathon at the Los Angeles Olympics. Edward VII Park also frequently hosts exhibitions and concerts.

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The best boutique hotels in Lisbon…
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2020.09.20 13:30 Britneyfan456 Which Actor had the best run in the 40s?

It could be best run in terms of anything and only Male Actors
Humphrey Bogart: Brother Orchid, Tokyo Joe, The Maltese Falcon, All Through the Night, Casablanca, Sahara, Thank Your Lucky Stars, To Have and Have Not, High Sierra, The Big Sleep, Dark Passage, The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, They Drive by Night, Key Largo, The Wagons Roll at Night, Passage to Marseille, Across the Pacific, Dead Reckoning, and Knock on Any Door.
Edward G. Robinson: Brother Orchid, Scarlet Street, Key Largo, Double Indemnity, The Stranger, The Woman in the Window, Night Has a Thousand Eyes, It's a Great Feeling, House of Strangers, The Red House, All My Sons, Journey Together, Destroyer, Tampico, Mr. Winkle Goes to War, Unholy Partners, Larceny, Inc., A Dispatch from Reuters, Manpower, Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet, and The Sea Wolf.
Joseph Cotten: Citizen Kane, The Magnificent Ambersons, Shadow of a Doubt, Gaslight, Since You Went Away, I’ll Be Seeing You, Love Letters, The Farmer’s Daughter, Portrait of Jennie, The Third Man, Beyond the Forest, Hers to Hold, Under Capricorn, Duel in the Sun, and Lydia.
Cary Grant: Notorious, His Girl Friday, The Philadelphia Story, None but the Lonely Heart, Night and Day, Penny Serenade, The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer, Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House, Arsenic and Old Lace, Suspicion, My Favorite Wife, The Talk of the Town, I Was a Male War Bride, The Bishops Wife, Once Upon a Honeymoon, Mr. Lucky, Every Girl Should Be Married, Destination Tokyo, Once Upon a Time, and The Howards of Virginia.
John Garfield: The Sea Wolf, Air Force, Destination Tokyo, Between Two Worlds, Hollywood Canteen, Pride of the Marines, The Postman Always Rings Twice, Nobody Lives Forever, Humoresque, Body and Soul, Gentleman’s Agreement, Tortilla Flat, Difficult Years, Jigsaw, Force of Evil, We Were Strangers, Nobody Lives Forever, Out of the Fog, Dangerously They Live, Castle on the Hudson, Flowing Gold, Saturday's Children, and East of the River.
William Holden: Arizona, Texas, The Fleet’s In, The Remarkable Andrew, Dear Ruth, Rachel and the Stranger, Apartment for Peggy, Streets of Laredo, Variety Girl,The Man from Colorado, Miss Grant Takes Richmond, Dear Wife, Streets of Laredo, Blaze of Noon, The Fleet's In, I Wanted Wings, The Remarkable Andrew, Young and Willing, Meet the Stewarts, Our Town, and Those Were the Days!.
Robert Mitchum: The Story of G.I. Joe, The Locket, Pursued, Crossfire, Out of the Past, Rachel and the Stranger, Blood on the Moon, The Big Steal, Holiday Affair, Border Patrol, Beyond the Last Frontier, Follow the Band, Gung Ho!, Cry 'Havoc', Nevada, Colt Comrades, Bar 20, False Colors, Riders of the Deadline, The Human Comedy, The Magic of Make-up, Hoppy Serves a Writ, Aerial Gunner, We've Never Been Licked, The Lone Star Trail, Doughboys in Ireland, Corvette K-225, The Red Pony, Desire Me, Undercurrent, Till the End of Time, Girl Rush, West of the Pecos, Johnny Doesn't Live Here Any More, When Strangers Marry, The Dancing Masters, Minesweeper, and Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo.
Gregory Peck: The Keys of the Kingdom, The Valley of Decision, Spellbound, The Yearling, Gentleman’s Agreement, Yellow Sky, Twelve O’Clock High, Duel in the sun, Gas Light, Days of Glory, The Macomber Affair, and The Paradine Case.
Vincent Price: The Invisible Man Returns, The House of the Seven Gables, The Keys of the Kingdom, Leave Her to Heaven, Dragonwyck, The Web, The Long Night, and The Three Musketeers.
James Stewart: Ziegfeld Girl, It’s a Wonderful Life, The Shop Around the Corner, The Mortal Storm, The Philadelphia Story, Come Live with Me, Call Northside 777, Rope, The Stratton Story, No Time for Comedy, Pot o' Gold, Magic Town, Malaya, and On Our Merry Way.
Orson Welles: Citizen Kane, Jane Eyre, Tomorrow Is Forever, The Stranger, The Lady from Shanghai, Macbeth, and The Third Man.
Cornell Wilde: A Song to Remember, Manila Calling, Leave Her to Heaven, The Homestretch, It Had to Be You, The Walls of Jericho, and Roadhouse.
Henry Fonda: The Lady Eve, The Grapes of Wrath, My Darling Clementine, The Ox-Bow Incident, You Belong to Me, On Our Merry Way, Daisy Kenyon, Chad Hanna, Jigsaw, Fort Apache, The Return of Frank James, The Fugitive, Lillian Russell, Wild Geese Calling, Immortal Sergeant, The Male Animal, The Magnificent Dope, Tales of Manhattan, The Long Night, and The Big Street.
Gary Cooper: Sergeant York, Meet John Doe, The Pride of the Yankees, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Fountainhead, Along Came Jones, Ball of Fire, and Unconquered.
John Wayne: Red River, Fort Apache, The Shepherd of the Hills,Sands of Iwo Jima, Reap the Wild Wind, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, Wake of the Red Witch, The Fighting Seabees, Flying Tigers, They Were Expendable, Dark Command, Reunion in France, The Spoilers, Lady from Louisiana, Dakota, Angel and the Badman, Without Reservations, Flame of Barbary Coast, Tall in the Saddle, The Fighting Kentuckian, 3 Godfathers, Tycoon, Pittsburgh, A Lady Takes a Chance, In Old Oklahoma, Back to Bataan, Three Faces West, The Long Voyage Home, A Man Betrayed, The Shepherd of the Hills, Lady for a Night, In Old California, and Seven Sinners.
Spencer Tracy: Woman of the Year, The Sea of Grass, A Guy Named Joe, State of the Union, Adam's Rib, Tortilla Flat,Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, Keeper of the Flame, Boom Town, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Edison, the Man, Northwest Passage, and Malaya.
Fred Astaire: The Barkleys of Broadway, Blue Skies, Easter Parade, Second Chorus, Ziegfeld Follies, You Were Never Lovelier, The Sky's the Limit, Holiday Inn, and You'll Never Get Rich.
Bing Crosby: Going my Way, The Bells of St. Mary's, Out of This World, Road to Morocco, Birth of the Blues, Holiday Inn, The Princess and the Pirate, My Favorite Brunette, Welcome Stranger, Duffy's Tavern, The Emperor Waltz, Blue Skies, Road to Utopia, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad, and Dixie.
Ray Milliand: Reap the Wild Wind, The Lost Weekend, The Major and the Minor, The Big Clock, The Uninvited, Arise, My Love, Variety Girl, So Evil My Love, It Happens Every Spring, Ministry of Fear, Skylark, and I Wanted Wings.
Laurence Olivier: Hamlet, Rebecca, Henry V, 21 Days, That Hamilton Woman, 49th Parallel, This Happy Breed, and Pride and Prejudice.
Joel Mccrae: The More the Merrier, Sullivan's Travels, The Palm Beach Story, Ramrod, Reaching for the Sun, Foreign Correspondent, Primrose Path, The Great Moment, Colorado Territory, and The Unseen.
James Cagney: White Heat, Yankee Doodle Dandy, The Time of Your Life, Johnny Come Lately, 13 Rue Madeleine, City for Conquest, Torrid Zone, The Strawberry Blonde, Blood on the Sun, Captains of the Clouds, The Bride Came C.O.D., and The Fighting 69th.
Ward Bond: The Grapes of Wrath, Sergeant York, The Maltese Falcon, Gentleman Jim, My Darling Clementine, It's a Wonderful Life, The Fugitive, Fort Apache, 3 Godfathers, Joan of Arc, Canyon Passage, Dakota, Unconquered, Slightly Dangerous, Gentleman Jim, and The Shepherd of the Hills.
Gene Kelly: For Me and My Gal, Pilot #5, DuBarry Was a Lady, Thousands Cheer, The Cross of Lorraine, Cover Girl, Christmas Holiday, Anchors Aweigh, Living in a Big Way, The Pirate, Take Me Out to the Ballgame, and On the Town.
Burt Lancaster: The Killers, Desert Fury, Brute Force, Criss Cross, Rope of Sand, All My Sons, Sorry, Wrong Number, Variety Girl, Kiss the Blood Off My Hands, and I Walk Alone.
Frank Sinatra: Las Vegas Nights, On The Town, Ship Ahoy, Take Me Out to the Ball Game, Anchors Aweigh, Step Lively, Reveille with Beverly, The Kissing Bandit, It Happened in Brooklyn, Till the Clouds Roll By, Higher and Higher, and The Miracle of the Bells.
Montgomery Clift: Red River, The Heiress, and The Search.
Walter Brennan: Sergeant York, To Have and Have Not, Red River, My Darling Clementine, Dakota, The Princess and the Pirate, A Stolen Life, The Pride of the Yankees, Stand By for Action, All Through the Day, Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay!, Driftwood, Brimstone, Nobody Lives Forever, The Task Force, Nobody Lives Forever, Blood on the Moon, The Westerner, Maryland, Northwest Passage, Meet John Doe, Rise and Shine, Nice Girl?, The North Star, This Woman is Mine, Swamp Water, Home in Indiana, and Hangmen Also Die!.
Tyrone Power: The Mark of Zorro, Blood and Sand, The Black Swan, Prince of Foxes, Captain from Castile, Nightmare Alley, The Razor's Edge, Johnny Apollo, Brigham Young, Son of Fury: The Story of Benjamin Blake, This Above All, A Yank in the R.A.F., The Luck of the Irish, That Wonderful Urge, and Crash Dive.
Claude Rains: Casablanca, Notorious, Kings Row, The Wolf Man, Here Comes Mr. Jordan, Moontide, Now, Voyager, Phantom of the Opera, Forever and a Day, Lady with Red Hair, Saturday's Children, The Sea Hawk, Strange Holiday, Mr. Skeffington, Passage to Marseille, Song of Surrender, Deception, Rope of Sand, This Love of Ours, Caesar and Cleopatra, The Passionate Friends, Angel on My Shoulder, and The Unsuspected.
Peter Lorre: The Maltese Falcon, Casablanca, Arsenic and Old Lace, All Through the Night, The Boogie Man Will Get You, Three Strangers, Hollywood Canteen, The Mask of Dimitrios, The Verdict, The Chase, The Conspirators, Hotel Berlin, Black Angel, The Constant Nymph, Stranger on the Third Floor, The Face Behind the Mask, Background to Danger, You'll Find Out, Invisible Agent, The Cross of Lorraine, Casbah, Confidential Agent, My Favorite Brunette, and The Beast with Five Fingers.
Kirk Douglas: Out of the Past, I Walk Alone, Champion, The Strange Love of Martha Ivers, A Letter to Three Wives, Mourning Becomes Electra, The Walls of Jericho, and My Dear Secretary. Farley Granger: Rope, They Live By Night, The Purple Heart, Roseanna McCoy, and Enchantment.
Clifton Webb: The Razor's Edge, Laura, Sitting Pretty, Mr. Belvedere Goes to College, and The Dark Corner.
Lee J. Cobb: The Luck of the Irish, This Thing Called Love, Paris Calling, Boomerang, Call Northside 777, The Miracle of the Bells, Thieves' Highway, The Dark Past, The Song of Bernadette, Johnny O'Clock, Anna and the King of Siam, Tonight We Raid Calais, Buckskin Frontier, and Men of Boys Town.
Sydney Greenstreet: The Maltese Falcon, Casablanca, Across the Pacific, Three Strangers, The Conspirators, Background to Danger, They Died with Their Boots On, Between Two Worlds, Devotion, The Verdict, Ruthless, The Hucksters, The Woman in White, Malaya, Flamingo Road, It's a Great Feeling, The Velvet Touch, Conflict, That Way with Women, Christmas in Connecticut, and Pillow to Post.
Tim Holt: The Treasure of The Sierra Madre, The Magnificent Ambersons, Laddie, Swiss Family Robinson, Back Street, The Fargo Kid, Wagon Train, Dude Cowboy, The Bandit Trail, Come on Danger, Land of the Open Range, Six-Gun Gold, Robbers of the Range, Western Heritage, Guns of Hate, Indian Agent, Brothers in the Saddle, Along the Rio Grande, Riding the Wind, Thundering Hoofs, Bandit Ranger, Pirates of the Prairie, Sagebrush Law, Thunder Mountain, Fighting Frontier, The Avenging Rider, Under the Tonto Rim, Gun Smugglers, Rustlers, The Mysterious Desperado, The Arizona Ranger, Stagecoach Kid, Red River Robin Hood, My Darling Clementine, and Wild Horse Mesa.
George Raft: Background to Danger, Red Light, A Dangerous Profession, The House Across the Bay, They Drive by Night, Man Power, Broadway, Nob Hill, Stage Door Canteen, Nocturne, Mr. Ace, Johnny Angel, Intrigue, Whistle Stop, Outpost in Morocco, Race Street, Christmas Eve, and Johnny Allegro.
Melvyn Douglas: This Thing Called Love, A Woman's Secret, The Great Sinner, Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House, My Own True Love, They All Kissed the Bride, Three Hearts for Julia, The Sea of Grass, The Guilt of Janet Ames, Our Wife, We Were Dancing, Too Many Husbands, He Stayed for Breakfast, Third Finger, Left Hand, A Woman's Face, That Uncertain Feeling, and Two-Faced Woman.
Henry Travers: It's a Wonderful Life, The Moon Is Down, Mrs. Miniver, The Bells of St. Mary's, Gallant Journey, The Flame, The Yearling, The Girl from Jones Beach, The Accused, Beyond Glory, Shadow of a Doubt, Dragon Seed, Madame Curie, The Very Thought of You, Thrill of a Romance, None Shall Escape, The Naughty Nineties, Ball of Fire, The Bad Man, Wyoming, High Sierra, Primrose Path, Edison, the Man, A Girl, a Guy and a Gob, I'll Wait for You, Anne of Windy Poplars, Pierre of the Plains, and Random Harvest.
Toshiro Mifune: Snow Trail, These Foolish Times 1 & 2, Drunken Angel, Jakoman and Tetsu, Stray Dog, and The Quiet Duel.
Walter Huston: The Treasure of The Sierra Madre, Yankee Doodle Dandy, The Maltese Falcon, The Devil and Daniel Webster, Swamp Water, Dragon Seed, The North Star, The Outlaw, Edge of Darkness, Dragonwyck, And Then There Were None, Duel in the Sun, December 7th: The Movie, Mission to Moscow, The Great Sinner, Summer Holiday, The Shanghai Gesture, Always in My Heart, and In This Our Life.
Erol Flynn: Edge of Darkness, Santa Fe Trail, San Antonio, Virginia City, The Sea Hawk, They Died with Their Boots On, Gentleman Jim, Footsteps in the Dark, Dive Bomber, That Forsyte Woman, Silver River, Adventures of Don Juan, Cry Wolf, Never Say Goodbye, Escape Me Never, Uncertain Glory, Northern Pursuit, Objective, Burma!, and Desperate Journey.
Chishū Ryū: Late Spring, Ornamental Hairpin, A Hen in the Wind, Brothers and Sisters of the Toda Family, Army, There Was a Father, and Record of a Tenement Gentleman.
Alec Guinness: Kind Hearts and Coronets, Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, Evensong, and A Run for Your Money.
Trevor Howard: The Third Man, Brief Encounter, They Made Me a Fugitive, The Way to the Stars, So Well Remembered, The Way Ahead, I See a Dark Stranger, and Green for Danger. Anton Walbrook: The Red Shoes, The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, Gaslight, The Queen of Spades, Dangerous Moonlight, The Man from Morocco, and 49th Parallel.
John Mills: The Black Sheep of Whitehall, Old Bill and Son, Cottage to Let, This Happy Breed, The Big Blockade, We Dive at Dawn, In Which We Serve, The Young Mr. Pitt, Great Expectations, The Way to the Stars, Waterloo Road, So Well Remembered, Scott of the Antarctic, The October Man, The History of Mr. Polly, and The Rocking Horse Winner.
Basil Radford: Flying Fortress, Just William, Crook's Tour, The Flying Squad, Night Train to Munich, The Girl who Forgot, Room for Two, Spies of the Air, Girl in the News, The Next of Kin, Unpublished Story, Twilight Hour, Dear Octopus, Millions like Us, London Scrapbook, The Captive Heart, Whisky Galore!, Quartet, A Girl in a Million, Passport to Pimlico, Dead of Night, The Winslow Boy, Stop Press Girl, Helter Skelter, and It's Not Cricket.
John Mills: The Black Sheep of Whitehall, Old Bill and Son, Cottage to Let, This Happy Breed, The Big Blockade, We Dive at Dawn, In Which We Serve, The Young Mr. Pitt, Great Expectations, The Way to the Stars, Waterloo Road, So Well Remembered, Scott of the Antarctic, The October Man, The History of Mr. Polly, and The Rocking Horse Winner.
Anton Walbrook: The Red Shoes, The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, Gaslight, The Queen of Spades, Dangerous Moonlight, The Man from Morocco, and 49th Parallel.
Edmund O’ Brien: The Killers, A Double Life, White Heat, D.O.A., The Web, For the Love of Mary, Another Part of the Forest, Winged Victory, An Act of Murder, Task Force, Fighter Squadron, Under Capricorn, Powder Town, The Amazing Mrs. Holliday, Obliging Young Lady, A Girl, a Guy and a Gob, and Parachute Battalion.
Van Johnson: Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, A Guy Named Joe, The Human Comedy, Too Many Girls, Murder in the Big House, For the Common Defense!, Dr. Gillespie's New Assistant, The War Against Mrs. Hadley, Somewhere I'll Find You, Dr. Gillespie's Criminal Case, Madame Curie, Pilot No. 5, The White Cliffs of Dover, Week-End at the Waldorf, Between Two Women, 3 Men in White, Two Girls and a Sailor, Easy to Wed, Thrill of a Romance, Battleground, Till the Clouds Roll By, Mother Is a Freshman, Command Decision, In the Good Old Summertime, Scene of the Crime, The Romance of Rosy Ridge, The Bride Goes Wild, State of the Union, No Leave, No Love, and High Barbaree.
Bob Hope: The Great Lover, Variety Girl, Where There's Life, Sorrowful Jones, Road to Rio, The Paleface, The Story of G.I. Joe, My Favorite Brunette, Monsieur Beaucaire, Road to Utopia, Road to Morocco, Let's Face It, The Princess and the Pirate, Show Business at War, They Got Me Covered, Combat America, My Favorite Blonde, The Ghost Breakers, Star Spangled Rhythm, Nothing but the Truth, Louisiana Purchase, Caught in the Draft, Road to Singapore, and Road to Zanzibar.
Fred MacMurray: Star Spangled Rhythm, Double Indemnity, Family Honeymoon, An Innocent Affair, Singapore, Smoky, Suddenly, It's Spring, Pardon My Past, On Our Merry Way, The Miracle of the Bells, The Egg and I, Father Was a Fullback, Practically Yours, Murder, He Says, Where Do We Go from Here?, Captain Eddie, Above Suspicion, Standing Room Only, Take a Letter, Darling, The Forest Rangers, Flight for Freedom, No Time for Love, Virginia, And the Angels Sing, New York Town, Dive Bomber, Rangers of Fortune, The Lady Is Willing, One Night in Lisbon, Remember the Night, Little Old New York, and Little Old New York
James Gleason: When My Baby Smiles at Me, Miss Grant Takes Richmond, Tycoon, The Homestretch, Down to This Man's Navy Earth, The Clock, The Keys of the Kingdom, Arsenic and Old Lace, This Man's Navy, Captain Eddie, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, The Well Groomed Bride, Lady Luck, Home Sweet Homicide, The Bishop's Wife, Bad Boy, The Hoodlum Saint, Smart Woman, The Life of Riley, The Return of October, Take One False Step, The Falcon Takes Over,Footlight Serenade, My Gal Sal, Tales of Manhattan, Crash Dive, Manila Calling, A Guy Named Joe, Once Upon a Time, The Dude Goes West, Babes on Broadway, Hay Foot, A Date with the Falcon, Here Comes Mr. Jordan, Tanks a Million, Nine Lives Are Not Enough, Meet John Doe, Affectionately Yours, Grandpa Goes to Town, and Earl of Puddlestone.
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2020.09.08 19:01 StevenStevens43 Destroyed Temple of Thoth

Destroyed Temple of Thoth
Ethriel:
In Irish mythology, there was an Irish high king named Ethriel.
Ethriel is supposed to have reigned during the same period that Samson was the king of the tribes of Dan.
Ethriel
Ethriel, son of Íriel Fáid, according to medieval Irish legends and historical traditions, succeeded his father as High King of Ireland. During his reign he cleared six plains. He ruled for twenty years, until he was killed in the Battle of Rairiu by Conmáel in revenge for his father Éber Finn, who had been killed by Ethriel's grandfather Érimón. He was the last of the chieftains who arrived in the invasion of the sons of Míl) to rule Ireland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn says that during his reign Tautanes, king of Assyria, died (1182 BC according to Jerome's Chronicon)), as did Hector and Achilles (the Trojan War is usually dated to the 13th century BC), and Samson was king of the Tribe of Dan in ancient Israel.[1] Geoffrey Keating dates his reign from 1259 to 1239 BC,[2]
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Samson fighting a Lion
Tribe of Danaan:
Ethriel himself, was from the tribe of Danann, as he was a Son of Mil, who was a king of Spain, and as we have covered in previous articles, Iberia was a Celtic stronghold during this period. (see Beaker culture).
Milesians)
In the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Irish Christian pseudo-history, the Milesians (Irish: gairthear Mílidh Easpáinne) are the final race to settle in Ireland. They represent the Irish people. The Milesians are Gaels who sail to Ireland from Iberia (Hispania) after spending hundreds of years travelling the earth. When they land in Ireland they contend with the Tuatha Dé Danann
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Sons of Mil
Tuatha de Dannan:
Now, the reason we know that Ethriel was from the tribe of Dannan, is because the Sons of Mil were the legendary Tuatha de Dannan, and the etymology of "Tuatha", means "People, tribe, nation".
Name
The Old Irish word tuath (plural tuatha) means "people, tribe, nation";
Superhuman:
Now the fact that many superhuman attributes get awarded to Tuatha de Dannan figures, perhaps makes the Tuatha de Dannan appear mythological.
However it is quite contemporary that during this period there was an Indo-Aryan empire known as the Hittite empire that was waging a serious assault on Egypt and it's surrounding vassal kingdoms, and those Hittites began to take on a super-human aura.
New kingdom
During the Hittite Empire period the kingship became hereditary and the king took on a "superhuman aura" and began to be referred to by the Hittite citizens as "My Sun". The kings of the Empire period began acting as a high priest for the whole kingdom—making an annual tour of the Hittite holy cities, conducting festivals and supervising the upkeep of the sanctuaries.[45]
King Thorri:
A good example of super-human legends comes from a Swedish mythological king named king Thorri from house of ynglings, who is supposed to be descended from Dan I.
About Thorri
King Thorri (Þorri 'frozen snow') was son of Snær ('Snow') the Old, a descendant of Fornjót ("king of Jotlandi (also spelled Gotlandi[2]), later known as Quennlandi and Finnlandi"). See Snær and Fornjót for further information. The name Þorri has long been connected with that of Þórr, the name of the Norse thunder god Thor, or thunder personified.[3]
A grandson of King Snow, and Frost before that, king Nór marries Hedda (Höddu) daughter of Svaða Jótun that may be seen as descending from the Scyldings, from the Kings of Lejre, the stronghold of the descendants of Dan) in Denmark.
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Thor
Superman:
Another good example of self confessed supermen during this period, comes from Indo god of war, Subrahmanya.
Kartikeya (Sanskrit: कार्त्तिकेय, IAST: Kārttikeya), also known as Skanda, Kumara,[4], Murugan and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu god of war.[5]
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Subrahmanya
Sea peoples:
Now during this period, several pharoahs, including Merneptah, carried out wars against a notorious naval group named the "sea peoples".
He described the sea peoples as "Northerners from all lands".
Campaigns
Merneptah had to carry out several military campaigns during his reign. In the fifth year of his rule, he fought against the Libyans, who— with the assistance of the Sea Peoples— were threatening Egypt from the west. Merneptah led a victorious six-hour battle against a combined Libyan and Sea People force at the city of Perire, probably located on the western edge of the Nile delta. His account of this campaign against the Sea Peoples and Libu is described in prose on a wall beside the sixth pylon at Karnak, which states:
[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -I, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.
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Merneptah
Merneptah:
Merneptah reigned 1213 and 1203 BC, so that would not quite put him within the 1259 to 1239 BC period given in Irish mythology for the reign of Samson.
Merneptah
Merneptah or Merenptah (reigned July or August 1213 BC – May 2, 1203 BC) was the fourth pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
Ramesses II:
The reign of Samson would have been during the reign of Remesses II:
Ramesses II
Ramesses II /ˈræməsiːz, ˈræmsiːz, ˈræmziːz/[5] (variously also spelt Rameses[6] or Ramses (Ancient Egyptian: rꜥ-ms-sw "Ra is the one who bore him" > Koinē Greek: Ῥαμέσσης, romanized: Rhaméssēs); c. 1303 BC – July or August 1213; reigned 1279–1213 BC[7]), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
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Ramesses II
Battle against Sherden sea pirates:
Now the war between Egypt and the Hittite empire, was not a quick one, it carried on for hundreds of years, until the Hittites eventually collapsed the Egyptian dynasty, and therefore, Ramesses II was also called in to action against Sherden sea pirates.
Battle against sherden sea pirates
In his second year, Ramesses II decisively defeated the Sherden sea pirates who were wreaking havoc along Egypt's Mediterranean coast by attacking cargo-laden vessels travelling the sea routes to Egypt.[20] The Sherden people probably came from the coast of Ionia, from southwest Anatolia or perhaps, also from the island of Sardinia.[21][22][23] Ramesses posted troops and ships at strategic points along the coast and patiently allowed the pirates to attack their perceived prey before skillfully catching them by surprise in a sea battle and capturing them all in a single action.[24]
Sea peoples:
Now let us just stop a moment, to make sure we are under no elusions as to how notorious the Sea peoples were.
The Sea peoples are actually blamed for the late bronze age collapse, and likely led to the downfall of the native egyptian dynasty, more than the pitch battles conducted by the Hittite army.
Sea peoples
The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BCE).
Tribe of Dan:
Now what happened to the survivors of those defeats that got captured?
Well, the Egyptians en-rolled them in to the Egyptian army, in return for donating them lands in vassal kingdoms.
What happened to those that escaped? Well, would they not have just went home? Perhaps made their way back to Ireland, via their Iberian strong-hold?
Now, the best theory for who the tribe of Dan is, is that they were captured sea peoples from the tribe of Dannan. Or tribe of Denyan, as referred to by the Egyptians.
Amenope
The Onomasticon of Amenope, or Amenemipit (amen-em-apt), gives slight credence to the idea that the Ramesside kings settled the Sea Peoples in Canaan. Dated to about 1100 BCE, at the end of the 21st dynasty (which had numerous short-reigned pharaohs), this document simply lists names. After six place names, four of which were in Philistia, the scribe lists the Sherden (Line 268), the Tjeker (Line 269) and the Peleset (Line 270), who might be presumed to occupy those cities.[79] The Story of Wenamun on a papyrus of the same cache also places the Tjeker in Dor at that time. The fact that the Biblical maritime Tribe of Dan was initially located between the Philistines and the Tjekker, has prompted some to suggest that they may originally have been Denyen.
Tribe of Dan:
Now, typical of a sea fairing people, the Denyans ended up settling in a coastal part of Israel.
Tribe of Dan
The Tribe of Dan (Hebrew: דָּן‎), meaning, "Judge", was one of the tribes of Israel, according to the Torah. They were allocated a coastal portion of land when the people of Israel entered the Promised Land, later moving northwards.
Link for photo
Tribe of Dan
Lived on their boats:
Now, the Danites are believed to have actually not bothered settling on the Danite mainland of Israel, instead choosing to just live in their boats.
Assumably in the harbours.
Characteristics
Their primary trade characteristic was seafaring, unusual for the Israelite tribes.[19] In the Song of Deborah the tribe is said to have stayed on their ships with their belongings.[20
The Danites left port at the fall of the Hittite empire:
Now, when the Assyrian empire rose up and defeated the Hittite empire, the Danites took off in their boats and did not bother to hang around and Help Israel defend themselves against the Assyrians, and they were never seen again.
Assyrian conquest and demise
As part of the Kingdom of Israel), the territory of Dan was conquered by the Assyrians, and exiled; the manner of their exile led to their further history being lost.
Link for photo
Dan
Dan I:
Now, i think common sense alone would suggest, that the Denyan, likely returned to Northern regions, such as Ireland and Denmark.
You know, regions that had been under the kingship of Dan I, when they first got sent to the near to middle east to stop the charge of Thutmose III, who was leading the Egyptian native army northwards at a high speed.
Dan I
Dan I was the progenitor of the Danish royal house according to Saxo Grammaticus's Gesta Danorum. He supposedly held the lordship of Denmark along with his brother Angul), the father of the Angles in Angeln, which later formed the Anglo-Saxons in England.
Link for photo
Dan I
Samson:
Now this is not the end.
I now want to shift focus to Samson.
Conquest and territory
The most celebrated Danite was Samson, a Danaite judge from the period of settlement in the lands allotted by Joshua. Pnina Galpaz-Feller sees similarities between the story of Samson and Denyen tribal legends.[9]
Destroyed the temple of Dagon:
Now, Samson is attributed to have destroyed the temple of Dagon.
Samson
When the Philistines took Samson into their temple of Dagon, Samson asked to rest against one of the support pillars. After being granted permission, he prayed to God and miraculously recovered his strength, allowing him to bring down the columns, collapsing the temple and killing himself as well as all of the Philistines.
Link to photo
Pillars of Dagon
Temple of Dakka:
However, historically factually, the Temple of Dagon, was likely actually the temple of Dakka, in Nubia/Sudan/ancient egypt.
Temple of dakka
Ad-Dakka (Arab: الدكة, also el-Dakka, Egyptian: Pselqet, Greek: Pselchis) was a place in Lower Nubia. It is the site of the Greco-Roman Temple of Dakka, dedicated to Thoth, the god of wisdom in the ancient Egyptian pantheon.
Link for photo
Temple of Dakka
Temple of Thoth:
Now, in actual fact, it would not even be pertaining to the Temple of Dakka, as the temple of Dakka was only constructed in the 3rd BC, and was a reconstruction of earlier destroyed temples, in slightly different locations.
Now, dating back to the time of Ramesses II, there appears to be temple ruins from a location named Kubban, which is the earliest known temple of Dakka/Thoth.
Relocation
During the construction of the Aswan dam in the 1960s, the temple was dismantled and moved to the site of Wadi es-Sebua.[7] At the time of its removal, some reused stone blocks from Thutmose III, Seti I and Merneptah were discovered which originated from an earlier New Kingdom structure in or near Kubban.[2] The temple's pylon is now separated from the remainder of the temple due to the missing enclosure walls of the open court.
Link for photo
Nubia
Summary:
This would suggest, that the temple was likely destroyed by captured Denyan's fighting under Samson, for Ramesses II, during one of his Nubian campaigns, against the lower cataracts.
Campaigns in Nubia
Ramesses II also campaigned south of the first cataract of the Nile into Nubia. When Ramesses was about 22, two of his own sons, including Amun-her-khepeshef, accompanied him in at least one of those campaigns. By the time of Ramesses, Nubia had been a colony for 200 years, but its conquest was recalled in decoration from the temples Ramesses II built at Beit el-Wali[46] (which was the subject of epigraphic work by the Oriental Institute) during the Nubian salvage campaign of the 1960s),[47] Gerf Hussein and Kalabsha in northern Nubia. On the south wall of the Beit el-Wali temple, Ramesses II is depicted charging into battle against the Nubians in a war chariot, while his two young sons, Amun-her-khepsef and Khaemwaset, are shown behind him, also in war chariots. A wall in one of Ramesses's temples says he had to fight one battle with the Nubians without help from his soldiers.
Link for photo
Ramesses II in his War charriot
Summary:
Therefore, it is most likely that the Tuatha de Dannan, and Samson, were real historical figures, and Samson truly was a king that was involved in the destruction of a temple, but likely not in the location, nor environment, depicted in legends.
And Irish mythology, ties in perfectly with known contemporary history.
Though the story of Samson destroying the temple with his own super-human strength, is likely euhemerised from the true stroy of 408 BC olympic winner Polydamas of Skotoussa, who had quite literally won the title of hardest man in the world, after winning the pankratiast finals.
Pankratism was a sporting event were competitors fought eachother without rules.
So, unlike todays boxing events, pankratists were actually competing in real fights.
He apparently was killed whilst performing a heroic act of strength, when a roof caved in, and he held the roof up long enough for everyone else to escape, though he himself died.
Skotoussa is also thought to have killed a ferocious lion on mount Olympus with his bare hands.
Samson is also credited with this feat.
Therefore, superhuman acts achieved by Samson, are likely usurped from real stories connected with the Olympic gold medalist Skotoussa.

Polydamas of Skotoussa:
Polydamas of Skotoussa
Polydamas of Skotoussa (Greek: Πολυδάμας (gen.: -ντος) ὁ Σκοτουσσαῖος), son of Nicias, was a Thessalian pankratiast, and victor in the 93rd Olympiad (408 BC).
His size was said to be immense and the most marvellous stories are related of his strength (for example, how, without any weapons, he killed a huge lion on Mount Olympus, or how he stopped a chariot at full gallop). His reputation led Darius II of Persia to invite him to his court, where he performed similar feats.
In the end, Polydamas' strength could not prevent his demise. One summer, he and his friends were relaxing in a cave when the roof began to crumble down upon them. Believing his immense strength could prevent the cave-in, he held his hands up to the roof, trying to support it as the rocks crashed down around him. This gave enough time for his friends to flee the cave and reached safety, but Polydamas never got out and died.

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2020.08.27 00:54 brcblog OUR LADY OF CZESTOCHOWA

LEGEND OF THE SCAR ON OUR LADY'S FACE
The image of Our Lady in Czestochowa, Poland is among that small group of Black Madonnas recognized throughout the entire world, largely due to the recent manifestations of public piety shown by the Polish Pope, John Paul II. The image is sometimes called Our Lady of Jasna Gora after the name of the monastery site, in which it has been kept for six centuries. Joan Carroll Cruz relates the following 'miracle story' regarding the selection of this site where it is kept:
Saint Ladislaus was determined to save the image from the repeated invasions of the Tartars, by taking it to the more secure city of Opala, his birthplace. This journey took him through Czestochowa, where he decided to rest for the night. During this brief pause in their journey, the image was taken to Jasna Gora [in English, "Bright Hill"]. There it was placed in a small wooden church, named for the Assumption. The following morning, after the portrait was carefully replaced in its wagon, the Horses refused to move. Accepting this as a heavenly sign that the portrait was to remain in Czestochowa, Saint Ladislaus had the image solemnly returned to the Church of the Assumption.
Another 'miraculous' aspect of this image is that its antiquity is so great, that its origins are unknown, as though it "dropped from the heavens." Legend attributes its creation to Saint Luke, the evangelist, who "painted a portrait of the Virgin on the cedar wood table, at which she had taken her meals." Saint Helena, the Queen-Mother of Emperor Constantine, is said to have located the portrait during her visit to the Holy Land and to have brought it to Constantinople in the fourth century. After remaining there for five centuries, it was allegedly transferred in royal dowries, until it made its way to Poland, and the possession of Saint Ladislaus in the fifteenth century.
The legend continues: During Ladislaus' time, the image was damaged during a siege, by a Tartar arrow, "inflicting a scar on the throat of the Blessed Virgin." In 1430, Hussites stole and vandalized the precious image, breaking it into three pieces. Adding insult to injury:
One of the robbers drew his sword, struck the image and inflicted two deep gashes. While preparing to inflict a third gash, he fell to the ground and writhed in agony until his death... The two slashes on the cheek of the Blessed Virgin, together with the previous injury to the throat, have always reappeared—despite repeated attempts to repair them.
However, modern scholarship has its own views on this legend. Leonard Moss claims: "the figure is distinctly thirteenth-fourteenth century Byzantine in form." In general, its Byzantine style is obvious, a variant on Hodegetria. Janusz Pasierb states of the image that "in 1434 it was painted virtually anew" due to the extensive damage caused by vandalism. He adds that "the authors of the new version were faithful to the original as regards its contents." This might explain the persistence of the damage marks mentioned earlier. Finally, note that Pasierb sees the prototype of Our Lady of Czestochowa as "a Byzantine icon ... which from the fifth century on had been worshipped in a church in Constantinople's ton hodegon quarter."
The miracles worked by Our Lady of Czestochowa seem to occur mainly on a public scale. During her stay in Constantinople, she is reported to have frightened the besieging Saracens away from the city. Similarly, in 1655 a small group of Polish defenders was able to drive-off a much larger army of Swedish invaders from the sanctuary. The following year, the Holy Virgin was acclaimed Queen of Poland by King Casimir. It is also recorded that Our Lady dispersed an army of Russian invaders, by an apparition at the River Vistula, on September 15, 1920. In more recent times, the Czestochowa Madonna has also been acknowledged for her protection of and cooperation with the Polish nation. Beyond these public prodigies:
The miracles attributed to Our Lady of Czestochowa are numerous and spectacular. The original accounts of these cures and miracles are preserved in the archives of the Pauline Fathers at Jasna Gora.
A final question remains: why is Our Lady of Czestochowa black? Cruz mentions a possible link to the Canticle of Canticles: "I am black but beautiful."; but concludes that "The darkness is ascribed to various conditions [e.g. accumulated residue from candles], of which its age is primary."
Broschart, by contrast, opines: the shrine was destroyed by fire, but the picture was not burned--however, the flames and smoke had darkened it and from that day it has been known as the "Black Madonna."
Recall that Moss saw the image as Byzantine in form, dating from the Medieval period. He added: "the skin pigmentation is characteristic of this stylized portraiture."
Interestingly, Ernst Scheyer, an art historian, who studied the image, believed that "the present image was restored in the nineteenth century and painted somewhat darker than previously."
https://www.brcblog.org/2018/08/our-lady-of-czestochowa.html
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2020.08.27 00:54 brcblog OUR LADY OF CZESTOCHOWA

LEGEND OF THE SCAR ON OUR LADY'S FACE
The image of Our Lady in Czestochowa, Poland is among that small group of Black Madonnas recognized throughout the entire world, largely due to the recent manifestations of public piety shown by the Polish Pope, John Paul II. The image is sometimes called Our Lady of Jasna Gora after the name of the monastery site, in which it has been kept for six centuries. Joan Carroll Cruz relates the following 'miracle story' regarding the selection of this site where it is kept:
Saint Ladislaus was determined to save the image from the repeated invasions of the Tartars, by taking it to the more secure city of Opala, his birthplace. This journey took him through Czestochowa, where he decided to rest for the night. During this brief pause in their journey, the image was taken to Jasna Gora [in English, "Bright Hill"]. There it was placed in a small wooden church, named for the Assumption. The following morning, after the portrait was carefully replaced in its wagon, the Horses refused to move. Accepting this as a heavenly sign that the portrait was to remain in Czestochowa, Saint Ladislaus had the image solemnly returned to the Church of the Assumption.
Another 'miraculous' aspect of this image is that its antiquity is so great, that its origins are unknown, as though it "dropped from the heavens." Legend attributes its creation to Saint Luke, the evangelist, who "painted a portrait of the Virgin on the cedar wood table, at which she had taken her meals." Saint Helena, the Queen-Mother of Emperor Constantine, is said to have located the portrait during her visit to the Holy Land and to have brought it to Constantinople in the fourth century. After remaining there for five centuries, it was allegedly transferred in royal dowries, until it made its way to Poland, and the possession of Saint Ladislaus in the fifteenth century.
The legend continues: During Ladislaus' time, the image was damaged during a siege, by a Tartar arrow, "inflicting a scar on the throat of the Blessed Virgin." In 1430, Hussites stole and vandalized the precious image, breaking it into three pieces. Adding insult to injury:
One of the robbers drew his sword, struck the image and inflicted two deep gashes. While preparing to inflict a third gash, he fell to the ground and writhed in agony until his death... The two slashes on the cheek of the Blessed Virgin, together with the previous injury to the throat, have always reappeared—despite repeated attempts to repair them.
However, modern scholarship has its own views on this legend. Leonard Moss claims: "the figure is distinctly thirteenth-fourteenth century Byzantine in form." In general, its Byzantine style is obvious, a variant on Hodegetria. Janusz Pasierb states of the image that "in 1434 it was painted virtually anew" due to the extensive damage caused by vandalism. He adds that "the authors of the new version were faithful to the original as regards its contents." This might explain the persistence of the damage marks mentioned earlier. Finally, note that Pasierb sees the prototype of Our Lady of Czestochowa as "a Byzantine icon ... which from the fifth century on had been worshipped in a church in Constantinople's ton hodegon quarter."
The miracles worked by Our Lady of Czestochowa seem to occur mainly on a public scale. During her stay in Constantinople, she is reported to have frightened the besieging Saracens away from the city. Similarly, in 1655 a small group of Polish defenders was able to drive-off a much larger army of Swedish invaders from the sanctuary. The following year, the Holy Virgin was acclaimed Queen of Poland by King Casimir. It is also recorded that Our Lady dispersed an army of Russian invaders, by an apparition at the River Vistula, on September 15, 1920. In more recent times, the Czestochowa Madonna has also been acknowledged for her protection of and cooperation with the Polish nation. Beyond these public prodigies:
The miracles attributed to Our Lady of Czestochowa are numerous and spectacular. The original accounts of these cures and miracles are preserved in the archives of the Pauline Fathers at Jasna Gora.
A final question remains: why is Our Lady of Czestochowa black? Cruz mentions a possible link to the Canticle of Canticles: "I am black but beautiful."; but concludes that "The darkness is ascribed to various conditions [e.g. accumulated residue from candles], of which its age is primary."
Broschart, by contrast, opines: the shrine was destroyed by fire, but the picture was not burned--however, the flames and smoke had darkened it and from that day it has been known as the "Black Madonna."
Recall that Moss saw the image as Byzantine in form, dating from the Medieval period. He added: "the skin pigmentation is characteristic of this stylized portraiture."
Interestingly, Ernst Scheyer, an art historian, who studied the image, believed that "the present image was restored in the nineteenth century and painted somewhat darker than previously."
https://www.brcblog.org/2018/08/our-lady-of-czestochowa.html
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2020.08.21 21:00 portlane Frederick Horstkotte (April 18, 1923 - Aug. 15, 2020)

Frederick William 'Brud' Horstkotte
April 18, 1923 - Aug. 15, 2020
Fredrick William Horstkotte Jr. was born in Spokane, Wash., to Frederick W. Horstkotte Sr. and Esther Moore Horstkotte. Fred passed away rather suddenly at home the morning of Aug. 15, 2020. Fred lived in Portland for 97 years, 64 of those with his wonderful wife, Joan. His constant positive attitude and passion for his work, friends and active sports defined his life.
Fred moved to Portland at age 1 and grew up in the Irvington neighborhood attending Madeline Grade School and Grant High School where he proudly served as Fire Marshall. His older sisters, Esther and Mary kept a close eye on their younger brother, but Mary had trouble pronouncing "brother," it came out "brudder." The nickname Brud stuck. His education at MIT was interrupted by his service in the Army 13th Airborne Division. Spending VE day in Paris with his brother-in-law, Carl Jantzen was quite memorable.
Upon graduating from MIT he served as Clerk-of-the-Works for the expansion of the Oregon Lumber Company mill at Dee, Ore., in the Hood River Valley. He soon went to work with his father, Fred Sr. at F. W. Horstkotte and Associates where he spent the next 63 years designing sawmills and plywood plants from the same office in the American Bank Building. Fred was incredibly dedicated to his clients, many of whom became lifelong friends. These included SDS Lumber Co, Brooks Scanlon, Ochoco & Malhuer Lumber Companies, Willamette Industries, Collins Pine and many others.
His mother was a great proponent of active sports and made sure Fred and his sisters were busy year-round. Early years were spent skiing on Mt. Hood and Fred joined the Multnomah Athletic Club Ski Team as an Athletic Member and later won the Oregon High School Ski Championship for Grant. Later, weekly MAC handball games and tennis kept him busy. Seeking virgin corduroy until he was 87, he cherished his time skiing Mt. Hood, Mt. Bachelor and Sun Valley with his buddies and especially his two granddaughters.
After a five-year courtship, he married the former Joan Preble in 1955 who steered the home life with a steady hand while coordinating their many adventures, later traveling extensively with family and friends. Fred considered himself incredibly lucky to have such a caring and capable partner. His positive attitude was perhaps best displayed after a home-cooked meal when he would regularly declare, "That was the best meal I ever had!"
Fred and Joan had two children, David and Nancy. Tragically, Nancy died far too young at age 26. Fred was also predeceased by his sisters, Esther Jantzen Moore and Mary Horstkotte. In addition to his wife Joan, he is survived by David and his wife Joyce Wooding and his two granddaughters, Dena and Tate Horstkotte.
A funeral has been held and a memorial will be announced at a later date. Remembrances may be made to the Multnomah Athletic Foundation (multnomahathleticfoundation.com) or a charity of your choice.
Please sign the online guest book at www.oregonlive.com/obits
source: http://obits.oregonlive.com/obituaries/oregon/obituary.aspx?n=frederick-william-horstkotte-brud&pid=196676741
submitted by portlane to deadpeoplepdx [link] [comments]


2020.08.16 05:16 Britneyfan456 Which Actor had the best run in the 40s?

It could be best run in terms of anything and only Male Actors.
Humphrey Bogart: Brother Orchid, Tokyo Joe, The Maltese Falcon, All Through the Night, Casablanca, Sahara, Thank Your Lucky Stars, To Have and Have Not, High Sierra, The Big Sleep, Dark Passage, The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, They Drive by Night, Key Largo, The Wagons Roll at Night, Passage to Marseille, Across the Pacific, Dead Reckoning, and Knock on Any Door.
Edward G. Robinson: Brother Orchid, Scarlet Street, Key Largo, Double Indemnity, The Stranger,The Woman in the Window, Night Has a Thousand Eyes, It's a Great Feeling, House of Strangers, The Red House, All My Sons, Journey Together, Destroyer, Tampico, Mr. Winkle Goes to War, Unholy Partners, Larceny, Inc., A Dispatch from Reuters, Manpower, Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet, and The Sea Wolf.
Joseph Cotten: Citizen Kane, The Magnificent Ambersons, Shadow of a Doubt, Gaslight, Since You Went Away, I’ll Be Seeing You, Love Letters, The Farmer’s Daughter, Portrait of Jennie, The Third Man, and Beyond the Forest, Hers to Hold, Under Capricorn, Duel in the Sun, and Lydia.
Cary Grant: Notorious, His Girl Friday, The Philadelphia Story, None but the Lonely Heart, Night and Day, Penny Serenade, The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer, Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House, Arsenic and Old Lace, Suspicion, My Favorite Wife, The Talk of the Town, I Was a Male War Bride,The Bishops Wife, Once Upon a Honeymoon, Mr. Lucky, Every Girl Should Be Married, Destination Tokyo, Once Upon a Time, and The Howards of Virginia.
John Garfield: The Sea Wolf, Air Force, Destination Tokyo, Between Two Worlds, Hollywood Canteen, Pride of the Marines, The Postman Always Rings Twice, Nobody Lives Forever, Tortilla Flat,Humoresque, Body and Soul, Gentleman’s Agreement, Difficult Years, Jigsaw, Force of Evil, We Were Strangers, Nobody Lives Forever, Out of the Fog, Dangerously They Live, Castle on the Hudson, Flowing Gold, Saturday's Children, and East of the River.
William Holden: Arizona, Texas, The Fleet’s In, The Remarkable Andrew, Dear Ruth, Rachel and the Stranger, Apartment for Peggy, Streets of Laredo, Variety Girl,The Man from Colorado, Miss Grant Takes Richmond, Dear Wife, Streets of Laredo, Blaze of Noon, The Fleet's In, I Wanted Wings, The Remarkable Andrew, Young and Willing, Meet the Stewarts, Our Town, and Those Were the Days!.
Robert Mitchum: The Story of G.I. Joe, The Locket, Pursued, Crossfire, Out of the Past, Rachel and the Stranger, Blood on the Moon, The Big Steal, Holiday Affair, Border Patrol, Beyond the Last Frontier, Follow the Band, Gung Ho!, Cry 'Havoc', Nevada, Colt Comrades, Bar 20, False Colors, Riders of the Deadline, The Human Comedy, The Magic of Make-up, Hoppy Serves a Writ, Aerial Gunner, We've Never Been Licked, The Lone Star Trail, Doughboys in Ireland, Corvette K-225, The Red Pony, Desire Me, Undercurrent, Till the End of Time, Girl Rush, West of the Pecos, Johnny Doesn't Live Here Any More, When Strangers Marry, The Dancing Masters, Minesweeper, and Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo.
Gregory Peck: The Keys of the Kingdom, The Valley of Decision, Spellbound, The Yearling, Gentleman’s Agreement, Yellow Sky, Twelve O’Clock High, Duel in the sun, Gas Light, Days of Glory, The Macomber Affair, and The Paradine Case.
Vincent Price: The Invisible Man Returns, The House of the Seven Gables, The Keys of the Kingdom, Leave Her to Heaven, Dragonwyck, The Web, The Long Night, and The Three Musketeers.
James Stewart: Ziegfeld Girl, It’s a Wonderful Life, The Shop Around the Corner, The Mortal Storm, The Philadelphia Story, Come Live with Me, Call Northside 777, Rope, The Stratton Story, No Time for Comedy, Pot o' Gold, Magic Town, Malaya, and On Our Merry Way.
Orson Welles: Citizen Kane, Jane Eyre, Tomorrow Is Forever, The Stranger, The Lady from Shanghai, Macbeth, and The Third Man.
Colonel Wilde: A Song to Remember, Manila Calling, Leave Her to Heaven, The Homestretch, It Had to Be You, The Walls of Jericho, and Roadhouse.
Henry Fonda: The Lady Eve, The Grapes of Wrath, My Darling Clementine, The Ox-Bow Incident, You Belong to Me, On Our Merry Way, Daisy Kenyon, Chad Hanna, Jigsaw, Fort Apache, The Return of Frank James, The Fugitive, Lillian Russell, Wild Geese Calling, Immortal Sergeant, The Male Animal, The Magnificent Dope, Tales of Manhattan, The Long Night, and The Big Street.
Gary Cooper: Sergeant York, Meet John Doe, The Pride of the Yankees, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Fountainhead, Along Came Jones, Ball of Fire, and Unconquered.
John Wayne: Red River, Fort Apache, The Shepherd of the Hills,Sands of Iwo Jima, Reap the Wild Wind, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, Wake of the Red Witch, The Fighting Seabees, Flying Tigers, They Were Expendable, Dark Command, Reunion in France, The Spoilers, Lady from Louisiana, Dakota, Angel and the Badman, Without Reservations, Flame of Barbary Coast, Tall in the Saddle, The Fighting Kentuckian, 3 Godfathers, Tycoon, Pittsburgh, A Lady Takes a Chance, In Old Oklahoma, Back to Bataan, Three Faces West, The Long Voyage Home, A Man Betrayed, The Shepherd of the Hills, Lady for a Night, In Old California, and Seven Sinners.
James Cagney: White Heat, Yankee Doodle Dandy, Blood on the Sun, Johnny Come Lately, Captains of the Clouds, and The Strawberry Blonde.
Spencer Tracy: Woman of the Year, The Sea of Grass, A Guy Named Joe, State of the Union, Adam's Rib, Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, Keeper of the Flame, Boom Town, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Edison, the Man, Tortilla Flat,Northwest Passage, and Malaya.
Fred Astaire: The Barkleys of Broadway, Blue Skies, Easter Parade, Second Chorus, Ziegfeld Follies, You Were Never Lovelier, The Sky's the Limit, Holiday Inn, and You'll Never Get Rich.
Gene Kelly: For Me and My Gal, Pilot #5, DuBarry Was a Lady, Thousands Cheer, The Cross of Lorraine, Cover Girl, Christmas Holiday, Anchors Aweigh, Living in a Big Way, The Pirate, Take Me Out to the Ballgame, and On the Town.
Bing Crosby: Going my Way, The Bells of St. Mary's, Out of This World, Road to Morocco, Birth of the Blues, Holiday Inn, The Princess and the Pirate, My Favorite Brunette, Welcome Stranger, Duffy's Tavern, The Emperor Waltz, Blue Skies, Road to Utopia, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad, and Dixie.
Ray Milliand: Reap the Wild Wind, The Lost Weekend, The Major and the Minor, The Big Clock, The Uninvited, Arise, My Love, Variety Girl, So Evil My Love, It Happens Every Spring, Ministry of Fear, Skylark, and I Wanted Wings.
Laurence Olivier: Hamlet, Rebecca, Henry V, 21 Days, That Hamilton Woman, 49th Parallel, This Happy Breed, and Pride and Prejudice.
Joel Mccrae: The More the Merrier, Sullivan's Travels, The Palm Beach Story, Ramrod, Reaching for the Sun, Foreign Correspondent, Primrose Path, The Great Moment, Colorado Territory, and The Unseen.
James Cagney: White Heat, Yankee Doodle Dandy, The Time of Your Life, Johnny Come Lately, 13 Rue Madeleine, City for Conquest, Torrid Zone, The Strawberry Blonde, Blood on the Sun, Captains of the Clouds, The Bride Came C.O.D., and The Fighting 69th.
Ward Bond: The Grapes of Wrath, Sergeant York, The Maltese Falcon, Gentleman Jim, My Darling Clementine, It's a Wonderful Life, The Fugitive, Fort Apache, 3 Godfathers, Joan of Arc, Canyon Passage, Dakota, Unconquered, Slightly Dangerous, Gentleman Jim, and The Shepherd of the Hills.
Gene Kelly: For Me and My Gal, Pilot #5, DuBarry Was a Lady, Thousands Cheer, The Cross of Lorraine, Cover Girl, Christmas Holiday, Anchors Aweigh, Living in a Big Way, The Pirate, Take Me Out to the Ballgame, and On the Town.
Burt Lancaster: The Killers, Desert Fury, Brute Force, Criss Cross, Rope of Sand, All My Sons, Sorry, Wrong Number, Variety Girl, Kiss the Blood Off My Hands, and I Walk Alone.
Frank Sinatra: Las Vegas Nights, On The Town, Ship Ahoy, Take Me Out to the Ball Game, Anchors Aweigh, Step Lively, Reveille with Beverly, The Kissing Bandit, It Happened in Brooklyn, Till the Clouds Roll By, Higher and Higher, and The Miracle of the Bells.
Montgomery Clift: Red River, The Heiress, and The Search.
Walter Brennan: Sergeant York, To Have and Have Not, Red River, My Darling Clementine, Dakota, The Princess and the Pirate, A Stolen Life, The Pride of the Yankees, Stand By for Action, All Through the Day, Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay!, Driftwood, Brimstone, Nobody Lives Forever, The Task Force, Nobody Lives Forever, Blood on the Moon, The Westerner, Maryland, Northwest Passage, Meet John Doe, Rise and Shine, Nice Girl?, The North Star, This Woman is Mine, Swamp Water, Home in Indiana, and Hangmen Also Die!.
Tyrone Power: The Mark of Zorro, Blood and Sand, The Black Swan, Prince of Foxes, Captain from Castile, Nightmare Alley, The Razor's Edge, Johnny Apollo, Brigham Young, Son of Fury: The Story of Benjamin Blake, This Above All, A Yank in the R.A.F., The Luck of the Irish, That Wonderful Urge, and Crash Dive.
Claude Rains: Casablanca, Notorious, Kings Row, The Wolf Man, Here Comes Mr. Jordan, Moontide, Now, Voyager, Phantom of the Opera, Forever and a Day, Lady with Red Hair, Saturday's Children, The Sea Hawk, Strange Holiday, Mr. Skeffington, Passage to Marseille, Song of Surrender, Deception, Rope of Sand, This Love of Ours, Caesar and Cleopatra, The Passionate Friends, Angel on My Shoulder, and The Unsuspected.
Peter Lorre: The Maltese Falcon, Casablanca, Arsenic and Old Lace, All Through the Night, The Boogie Man Will Get You, Three Strangers, Hollywood Canteen, The Mask of Dimitrios, The Verdict, The Chase, The Conspirators, Hotel Berlin, Black Angel, The Constant Nymph, Stranger on the Third Floor, The Face Behind the Mask, Background to Danger, You'll Find Out, Invisible Agent, The Cross of Lorraine, Casbah, Confidential Agent, My Favorite Brunette, and The Beast with Five Fingers.
Kirk Douglas: Out of the Past, I Walk Alone, Champion, The Strange Love of Martha Ivers, A Letter to Three Wives, Mourning Becomes Electra, The Walls of Jericho, and My Dear Secretary.
Farley Granger: Rope, They Live By Night, The Purple Heart, Roseanna McCoy, and Enchantment.
Clifton Webb: The Razor's Edge, Laura, Sitting Pretty, Mr. Belvedere Goes to College, and The Dark Corner.
Lee J. Cobb: The Luck of the Irish, This Thing Called Love, Paris Calling, Boomerang, Call Northside 777, The Miracle of the Bells, Thieves' Highway, The Dark Past, The Song of Bernadette, Johnny O'Clock, Anna and the King of Siam, Tonight We Raid Calais, Buckskin Frontier, and Men of Boys Town.
Sydney Greenstreet: The Maltese Falcon, Casablanca, Across the Pacific, Three Strangers, The Conspirators, Background to Danger, They Died with Their Boots On, Between Two Worlds, Devotion, The Verdict, Ruthless, The Hucksters, The Woman in White, Malaya, Flamingo Road, It's a Great Feeling, The Velvet Touch, Conflict, That Way with Women, Christmas in Connecticut, and Pillow to Post.
Tim Holt: The Treasure of The Sierra Madre, The Magnificent Ambersons, Laddie, Swiss Family Robinson, Back Street, The Fargo Kid, Wagon Train, Dude Cowboy, The Bandit Trail, Come on Danger, Land of the Open Range, Six-Gun Gold, Robbers of the Range, Western Heritage, Guns of Hate, Indian Agent, Brothers in the Saddle, Along the Rio Grande, Riding the Wind, Thundering Hoofs, Bandit Ranger, Pirates of the Prairie, Sagebrush Law, Thunder Mountain, Fighting Frontier, The Avenging Rider, Under the Tonto Rim, Gun Smugglers, Rustlers, The Mysterious Desperado, The Arizona Ranger, Stagecoach Kid, Red River Robin Hood, My Darling Clementine, and Wild Horse Mesa.
George Raft: Background to Danger, Red Light, A Dangerous Profession, The House Across the Bay, They Drive by Night, Man Power, Broadway, Nob Hill, Stage Door Canteen, Nocturne, Mr. Ace, Johnny Angel, Intrigue, Whistle Stop, Outpost in Morocco, Race Street, Christmas Eve, and Johnny Allegro.
Melvyn Douglas: This Thing Called Love, A Woman's Secret, The Great Sinner, Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House, My Own True Love, They All Kissed the Bride, Three Hearts for Julia, The Sea of Grass, The Guilt of Janet Ames, Our Wife, We Were Dancing, Too Many Husbands, He Stayed for Breakfast, Third Finger, Left Hand, A Woman's Face, That Uncertain Feeling, and Two-Faced Woman.
Henry Travers: It's a Wonderful Life, The Moon Is Down, Mrs. Miniver, The Bells of St. Mary's, Gallant Journey, The Flame, The Yearling, The Girl from Jones Beach, The Accused, Beyond Glory, Shadow of a Doubt, Dragon Seed, Madame Curie, The Very Thought of You, Thrill of a Romance, None Shall Escape, The Naughty Nineties, Ball of Fire, The Bad Man, Wyoming, High Sierra, Primrose Path, Edison, the Man, A Girl, a Guy and a Gob, I'll Wait for You, Anne of Windy Poplars, Pierre of the Plains, and Random Harvest.
Toshiro Mifune: Snow Trail, These Foolish Times 1 & 2, Drunken Angel, Jakoman and Tetsu, Stray Dog, and The Quiet Duel.
Walter Huston: The Treasure of The Sierra Madre, Yankee Doodle Dandy, The Maltese Falcon, The Devil and Daniel Webster, Swamp Water, Dragon Seed, The North Star, The Outlaw, Edge of Darkness, Dragonwyck, And Then There Were None, Duel in the Sun, December 7th: The Movie, Mission to Moscow, The Great Sinner, Summer Holiday, The Shanghai Gesture, Always in My Heart, and In This Our Life.
Erol Flynn: Edge of Darkness, Santa Fe Trail, San Antonio, Virginia City, The Sea Hawk, They Died with Their Boots On, Gentleman Jim, Footsteps in the Dark, Dive Bomber, That Forsyte Woman, Silver River, Adventures of Don Juan, Cry Wolf, The Lady from Shanghai, Never Say Goodbye, Escape Me Never, Uncertain Glory, Northern Pursuit, Objective, Burma!, and Desperate Journey.
Chishū Ryū: Late Spring, Ornamental Hairpin, A Hen in the Wind, Brothers and Sisters of the Toda Family, Army, There Was a Father, and Record of a Tenement Gentleman.
Trevor Howard: The Third Man, Brief Encounter, They Made Me a Fugitive, The Way to the Stars, So Well Remembered, The Way Ahead, I See a Dark Stranger, and Green for Danger.
Alec Guinness: Kind Hearts and Coronets, Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, Evensong, and A Run for Your Money.
Basil Radford: Flying Fortress, Just William, Crook's Tour, The Flying Squad, Night Train to Munich, The Girl who Forgot, Room for Two, Spies of the Air, Girl in the News, The Next of Kin, Unpublished Story, Twilight Hour, Dear Octopus, Millions like Us, London Scrapbook, The Captive Heart, Whisky Galore!, Quartet, A Girl in a Million, Passport to Pimlico, Dead of Night, The Winslow Boy, Stop Press Girl, Helter Skelter, and It's Not Cricket.
John Mills: The Black Sheep of Whitehall, Old Bill and Son, Cottage to Let, This Happy Breed, The Big Blockade, We Dive at Dawn, In Which We Serve, The Young Mr. Pitt, Great Expectations, The Way to the Stars, Waterloo Road, So Well Remembered, Scott of the Antarctic, The October Man, The History of Mr. Polly, and The Rocking Horse Winner.
Anton Walbrook: The Red Shoes, The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, Gaslight, The Queen of Spades, Dangerous Moonlight, The Man from Morocco, and 49th Parallel.
Edmund O’ Brien: The Killers, A Double Life, White Heat, D.O.A., The Web, For the Love of Mary, Another Part of the Forest, Winged Victory, An Act of Murder, Task Force, Fighter Squadron, Under Capricorn, Powder Town, The Amazing Mrs. Holliday, Obliging Young Lady, A Girl, a Guy and a Gob, and Parachute Battalion.
Van Johnson: Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, A Guy Named Joe, The Human Comedy, Too Many Girls, Murder in the Big House, For the Common Defense!, Dr. Gillespie's New Assistant, The War Against Mrs. Hadley, Somewhere I'll Find You, Dr. Gillespie's Criminal Case, Madame Curie, Pilot No. 5, The White Cliffs of Dover, Week-End at the Waldorf, Between Two Women, 3 Men in White, Two Girls and a Sailor, Easy to Wed, Thrill of a Romance, Battleground, Till the Clouds Roll By, Mother Is a Freshman, Command Decision, In the Good Old Summertime, Scene of the Crime, The Romance of Rosy Ridge, The Bride Goes Wild, State of the Union, No Leave, No Love, and High Barbaree.
Bob Hope: The Great Lover, Variety Girl, Where There's Life, Sorrowful Jones, Road to Rio, The Paleface, The Story of G.I. Joe, My Favorite Brunette, Monsieur Beaucaire, Road to Utopia, Road to Morocco, Let's Face It, The Princess and the Pirate, Show Business at War, They Got Me Covered, Combat America, My Favorite Blonde, The Ghost Breakers, Star Spangled Rhythm, Nothing but the Truth, Louisiana Purchase, Caught in the Draft, Road to Singapore, and Road to Zanzibar.
Fred MacMurray: Star Spangled Rhythm, Double Indemnity, Family Honeymoon, An Innocent Affair, Singapore, Smoky, Suddenly, It's Spring, Pardon My Past, On Our Merry Way, The Miracle of the Bells, The Egg and I, Father Was a Fullback, Practically Yours, Murder, He Says, Where Do We Go from Here?, Captain Eddie, Above Suspicion, Standing Room Only, Take a Letter, Darling, The Forest Rangers, Flight for Freedom, No Time for Love, Virginia, And the Angels Sing, New York Town, Dive Bomber, Rangers of Fortune, The Lady Is Willing, One Night in Lisbon, Remember the Night, Little Old New York, and Little Old New York.
James Gleason: When My Baby Smiles at Me, Miss Grant Takes Richmond, Tycoon, The Homestretch, Down to This Man's Navy Earth, The Clock, The Keys of the Kingdom, Arsenic and Old Lace, This Man's Navy, Captain Eddie, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, The Well Groomed Bride, Lady Luck, Home Sweet Homicide, The Bishop's Wife, Bad Boy, The Hoodlum Saint, Smart Woman, The Life of Riley, The Return of October, Take One False Step, The Falcon Takes Over,Footlight Serenade, My Gal Sal, Tales of Manhattan, Crash Dive, Manila Calling, A Guy Named Joe, Once Upon a Time, The Dude Goes West, Babes on Broadway, Hay Foot, A Date with the Falcon, Here Comes Mr. Jordan, Tanks a Million, Nine Lives Are Not Enough, Meet John Doe, Affectionately Yours, Grandpa Goes to Town, and Earl of Puddlestone.
submitted by Britneyfan456 to criterion [link] [comments]


2020.07.30 01:00 LearningIsListening A not-so-brief rundown of the letter ‘R’ in Jeffrey Epstein's 'Little Black Book'

Below is a rundown of the letter ‘R’ under Epstein's contacts. Last year, I wrote about letters A-C. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/cpis3n/a_brief_rundown_of_the_first_ten_pages_of_jeffrey/).
I also wrote about letters D-F on July 5, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hlrba8/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_letters_df_in_jeffrey/).
I posted letters G-I on July 13, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hqko0y/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_letters_gi_in_jeffrey/).
I posted letters J-L on July 15, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hrq9bg/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_letters_jl_of_jeffrey/).
I posted letter M on July 20, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/huw0yt/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_the_letter_m_in_jeffrey/).
I posted letters N-Q on July 27, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hyudbz/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_the_letters_nq_in_jeffrey/). There are some misspelled names. Epstein entered their names like this.
I have bolded some of the more interesting connections and information, but there could be much more that I overlooked. I hope something here strikes an interest in someone and maybe we can get more investigations out of this. Please, if you know anything more about any of these people than what is presented here, post below. I am working off of the unredacted black book found here: https://www.coreysdigs.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Jeffrey-Epsteins-Little-Black-Book-unredacted.pdf
R
Rachline, Nicholas: Best friend of Harvey Weinstein for over 30 years (https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/champs-elysees-film-festival-harvey-weinstein-334309), Rachline is a photographer. Rachline was also editor-in-chief of Above, a magazine dedicated to environmental protection, until its final issue a few years later. Contributors to the magazine included David de Rothschild, Robert F. Kennedy Jr, Richard Branson, and other well-known figures. The biannual magazine was distributed by Conde Nast, which also owns Tatler, Vogue, Glamour, GQ, Vanity Fair, The New Yorker, and other influential publications. Jeffrey Epstein’s connections to Conde Nast publications - specifically Tatler and Vogue - continues to grow.
Radziwill, Carole: Journalist for ABC News who also wrote a monthly column for Glamour (owned by Conde Nast). Carole was on the Real Housewives of New York City for 6 seasons. Carole was a good friend of Ghislaine Maxwell’s in the early 2000s. Maxwell even set her up with Prince Andrew after Carole’s husband, Prince Anthony Radziwill, died of cancer in 1999 (https://www.nickiswift.com/224731/the-truth-about-carole-radziwill-ghislaine-maxwell/). Radziwill was the nephew of Jacqueline Kennedy (JFK’s wife) and son of Polish Prince Stanislaw Albrecht Radziwill. He also served as best man at JFK Jr.’s wedding. There are several pictures of Carole and Ghislaine circulating which forced her to make a statement regarding her relationship with Maxwell and Epstein, whom she says she only met once.
Rankin, Mr Gavin: The former Europe, Middle East, and Asia (EMEA) head of managed investments for Citi Private Bank. Now works for HSBC in a similar position. Has ties to the Royal Family. His restaurant, Bellamy’s, is the “only restaurant where the Monarch has ever dined at (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-3504185/The-Queen-goes-dinner-Bellamy-s-restaurant.html).” The Queen even celebrated her 80th birthday there. Looking at the menu prices, it seems an odd choice considering it’s not some super high-end eatery. Rankin is also the heir apparent to the Rankin Baronetcy.
Rappaport, Don: Co-founder and CEO of American List Counsel (ALC). The ALC tried to sell personal information on one-million kids (ages 14-17), along with their parents’ names, household incomes, and ethnicities to advertising companies (https://www.mcall.com/news/breaking/mc-nws-data-broker-personal-info-20190319-story.html) just last year. In other words, Mr. Rappaport runs a company that collects data on children and sells this information to whomever is willing to buy it. Who else is Rappaport sharing this information with?
Rattazzi, Isabel: Former model. Isabel is a Countess through her marriage to Lupo dei Conti Rattazzi. Her husband is the son of Susanna Agnelli, former Minister of Foreign Affairs and Member of Parliament in Italy. The Agnelli family are controlling shareholders of Fiat Automobiles.
Raynes, Patty: Daughter of billionaire oil and entertainment mogul, Marvin Davis (1925-2004). Patty is a well-known socialite in the Hamptons. Raynes hung out in the same circles as Ghislaine and Epstein. Her husband is a real estate developer.
Reardan, Kate: Editor of Tatler (another Tatler connection!) magazine from 2011-2017. Previously worked for Vanity Fair, another Conde Nast publication. Reardon was named one of London’s 1000 Most Influential People by the Evening Standard in 2007. She once dated Rupert Fairfax, aide to Prince Charles.
Reynal Michael: International investment banker.
Reynal, Miguel: There are a few Miguel Reynals. I believe it is the investment banker who once worked for Deutsche Bank because of the connection between Epstein and Deutsche Bank.
Reza, Ali: Founder of aviation company Freestream Aircraft Limited. Routinely deals with the wealthy and powerful (https://www.cnbc.com/2018/05/11/sanctioned-russian-tycoon-hands-back-his-private-jets.html).
Ritblat, Nick Rebecca Willis: Nick is the son of John Ritblat, the former Chairman and CEO of British Land, one of the largest property development and investment companies in the UK. Nick has followed in his father’s footsteps, as he is also in the property development game.
Ritson Thomas Rupert: Descendent of James Bond author, Ian Fleming (https://www.henleystandard.co.uk/news/community/136373/james-bond-authors-descendents-win-1-2-million-claim-on-school-land.html). Attends parties with royalty (https://www.tatler.com/gallery/royal-ascot-2000). Brother of famous photographer, Hugo Rittson-Thomas, who supports The National Deaf Children’s Society.
Rivers, Joan (and Melissa Rivers): Joan was a very popular comedian and actress who died in 2014 during surgery. Many think she was murdered because of her comments about Michelle Obama’s gender. Joan was friends with Ghislaine Maxwell and knew her since at least the early ‘90s (https://www.salon.com/2019/07/09/i-was-a-friend-of-jeffrey-epstein-heres-what-i-know/). Joan was also good friends with Prince Charles and had a tight relationship with the Royal Family, as she often attended Royal events (https://www.biography.com/news/joan-rivers-prince-charles-friendship). Melissa is her daughter. She has no discernible talent whatsoever.
Robert, Joseph & Jill: Joseph E. Robert Jr. was an international real estate investor. Robert was known for his philanthropy. He donated $25 million (and raised $150 million more) to finance research on reducing the pain that children experience during surgery. He has been credited with raising nearly $1 billion for children’s charities ((https://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/09/business/joseph-e-robert-jr-investor-in-real-estate-dies-at-59.html). Robert founded Fight for Children, a charity meant to support at-risk children in Washington D.C. (https://www.fightforchildren.org/joseph-e-robert-j). Robert also donated a lot of money to Children’s National Hospital (https://www.bizjournals.com/washington/news/2019/10/24/here-s-what-children-s-national-is-bringing-to-the.html), which has scholarships named in his honor. He died of brain cancer in 2011. Jill was his wife.
Roberts, Deb: 99% sure this is the TV journalist for ABC News and wife of famous weatherman/TV personality Al Roker.
Robilant, Mr Edmondo di Maya: Edmondo is a fine art dealer. His wife, Maya, is a University lecturer, journalist, and television presenter.
Robin: Robin DeMetz is a personal friend of Epstein pal/alleged accomplice Naomi Campbell (https://www.nytimes.com/2003/04/30/nyregion/boldface-names-482374.html). She is married to Hasz DeMetz, who is in the diamond mining business.
Robinski, Kasia/Pod: Kasia is an investor and serves as director for several companies. No clue who/what Pod refers to.
Robinson, Jo & Lisa Shields: Lisa is the Vice President of Global Communications and Media Relations for the Council on Foreign Relations, where Epstein used to serve. No info on Joe, although I believe he is the gentleman on the left in this picture (https://www.patrickmcmullan.com/photo/0361960).
Rocksavage, David: The 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley and the Lord Great Chamberlain of the UK. He is a descendant of the Rothschild and Sassoon families through his grandmother, Sybil Sassoon. He is also the descendant of Britain’s first Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole. The Marquess doesn’t keep the best company. The Godfather of his twins bilked L’Oreal heiress, Liliane Bettencourt, out of £850 million in 2010 https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1295083/L-Oreal-fraud-suspect-Marquess.html). He was convicted of ‘abuse of weakness’ in 2016. Rocksavage’s wife, Rose Hanbury, is the Marchioness of Cholmondeley. She is a patron of East Anglia’s Children’s Hospices (EACH) along with Kate Middleton, the Duchess of Cambridge, and other royalty. Last year, there were rumors that Rose Hanbury had an affair with Prince William, Prince Charles’s eldest son and husband of Kate Middleton (https://news.yahoo.com/6-things-know-rose-hanbury-164552520.html).
Roedy, Bill: Former Vice President at HBO, former head honcho at MTV Europe, and Global Health Advisor. In 2018, Roedy was named Vice Chair of Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance (https://www.gavi.org/gavi-board-appoints-bill-roedy-as-vice-chair), which was founded in 2000 by… the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (https://www.gavi.org/our-alliance/about)! Roedy not only serves on the Council on Foreign Relations just like Epstein once did (Epstein preceded Roedy), but he also had connections to Robert Maxwell, Ghislaine’s father.
Rolfe, Gail: Freelance journalist and fashion editor who once worked for Tatler (again) and The Times (https://www.hachette.com.au/gail-rolfe/).
Ronson, Lisa: Gerald Ronson’s daughter (see below).
Ronson, Mr & Mrs Gerald: British furniture and property development tycoon. Gerald is a big-time philanthropist. In addition to the number of Jewish groups he gives money to, Ronson also serves as Vice President of the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC). a children’s charity that several others in Epstein’s ‘black book’ (Jemma Kidd, Tim Jeffries, Mary Glanville, Clare Hazell-Ivaegh, Ben Holland-Martin, Manilo Marocco) and Princess Margaret have served. The number of suspected pedophiles and child traffickers that are involved with the NSPCC is mindblowing. As if that weren’t enough, Gerald was also good friends with Greville Janner, ex-Leicester MP who was constantly accused of child abuse before his death, but was able to evade culpability due to police constantly bungling the evidence (https://www.leicestermercury.co.uk/news/leicester-news/ex-leicester-mp-greville-janner-3869479). Gerald’s wife, Gail, is also a philanthropist of Jewish charities. Her first big event in 1983 was attended by Prince Charles and Princess Diana.
Rose, Wendy & Joe: Now divorced, Wendi and Joe are both real estate magnates in New York. Joe worked for Mayor Giuliani from 1993-2001.
Rose, Charlie & Burden, Amanda: Charlie Rose is a (former) famous television journalist who hosted the eponymous talk show, Charlie Rose. Jeffrey Epstein and Charlie Rose were thick as thieves. In fact, Epstein (and his assistant) called Rose many times and would recommend potential young assistants for Charlie Rose to hire (https://nymag.com/intelligence2019/07/jeffrey-epstein-high-society-contacts.html). Epstein frequently lunched with and attended parties with Rose. Rose’s show was cancelled in 2017 when eight women came out and accused him of sexual harassment (https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/eight-women-say-charlie-rose-sexually-harassed-them--with-nudity-groping-and-lewd-calls/2017/11/20/9b168de8-caec-11e7-8321-481fd63f174d_story.html). Since then, 27 more women have accused Charlie Rose of sexual harassment (https://www.vulture.com/2018/05/charlie-rose-27-women-new-accusers-sexual-harassment.html), bringing the grand total to 35. Rose also served on the Council on Foreign Relations, although I am unable to find out if his time there coincided with Epstein’s. Charlie’s former love interest, Amanda, has worked for Bloomberg since 2002, first as director of the New York City Department of City Planning, then as chair of the City Planning Commission, and now as a principal at Bloomberg Associates, a consulting service.
Rosen, Andrew: Fashion designer.
Rosen, Denis & Sylvia: Dennis was a well-respected British scientist. Sylvia was his wife and co-writer of London Science.
Rosencrantz, Ms Claudia: British television executive and journalist. She was Controller of Entertainment for ITV for over ten years. Voted one of Britain’s 50 most inspirational women in 2018 by the Daily Mail.
Rosenfield, Donald: Movie producer. Former President of Merchant Ivory Productions from 1986-1998.
Rosenstein, Rob: Co-founder of Agoda. Similar to Expedia, Orbitz, Priceline, etc, Agoda provides its users with information on flights and hotels
Rosenthal, Jane: Co-founder of the Tribeca Film Festival and Tribeca Productions film studio with Robert De Niro. Good friend of Ghislaine Maxwell (https://www.barefootpalmbeach.com/post/epstein) and Peggy Siegal (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/jane-rosenthal-and-peggy-siegal-attend-lunch-in-honor-of-news-photo/591348640), Epstein’s plug into New York celebrity society.
Roth, Peter Thomas & Noreen: Peter Thomas Roth is the founder of the skin care and cosmetics company that bears his name. Roth graduated from Dalton school in 1975, where Epstein taught him during his senior year. Roth has lauded Epstein as a “brilliant teacher.” Epstein later served Roth’s tutor to prepare him for the Wharton School at Penn (http://www.virginislandsdailynews.com/ap/how-epstein-went-from-teaching-to-wall-street/article_59c0234e-cf7d-59c3-96a7-bb8a04dacaa8.html). Roth admits to going to Epstein’s mansion once, although he says only middle-aged people were present (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/12/nyregion/jeffrey-epstein-dalton-teacher.html). This story would be more plausible if Epstein didn’t have eight phone numbers, two addresses, and an email address listed under Roth’s name. It would also be more believable if they didn’t live two blocks away from each other in NYC. Noreen is Peter’s ex-wife. She serves as Managing Director of his company.
Rothchild, Jessica: Actually Jessica de Rothschild, daughter of billionaire financier Sir Evelyn de Rothschild (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/prince-charles-prince-of-wales-speaks-with-with-sir-evelyn-news-photo/467631086?adppopup=true) and Lynn Forester de Rothschild, close friend of Hillary Clinton. Jessica used to be a writer for Tatler magazine, which Epstein is deeply connected to through his contacts. Runs in the same circles as Epstein and Maxwell.
Rothchild, Hannah: The eldest child of Jacob Rothschild (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/lord-jacob-rothschild-attends-the-launch-of-the-stella-news-photo/972453692?adppopup=true), Hannah is a businesswoman and was the first female Chair of the Board of Trustees of the National Gallery in London. In 2018, Hannah took over as Chair of Yad Hanadiv (https://www.yadhanadiv.org.il/about-yad-hanadiv), a pro-Israel Rothschild organization/charity which has been running in its current form since 1958. The actual history dates back to the late 1800s when Baron Edmond de Rothschild sought to “support Jewish revival in Palestine.” Yad Hanadiv is responsible for building the Knesset (Israeli parliament), the Supreme Court, and is currently working on the New National Library in Israel. Hannah is also a Trustee of the Rothschild Foundation, which has been a long-time patron of… the NSPCC children’s charity (https://www.nspcc.org.uk/globalassets/documents/annual-reports/nspcc-annual-report-2006.pdf), where countless other suspected pedophiles and pedophile sympathizers find themselves orbiting.
Rothenburg, Rich: Former portfolio manager and researcher at Deutsche Bank, which was recently fined $150 million for ignoring Epstein’s suspicious transactions (https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/07/business/jeffrey-epstein-deutsche-bank-fine/index.html).
Rotherwick, Tania & Robin: Tania is an old friend of Ghislaine Maxwell (https://www.tatler.com/article/where-on-earth-is-ghislaine-maxwell) and ex-girlfriend of Prince Andrew. She is also the sister-in-law of Mark Carney, who served as the Governor of the Bank of England from 2013-2020. Her ex-husband, Robin Cayzer, is the 3rd Baron Rotherwick. He has served in the House of Lords since 1996.
Rothschild, Edouard de: Son of Guy de Rothschild, who was the great-great-grandson of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, the person responsible for founding the family’s banking empire in the 18th century. Edouard was head of the family’s Paris-based Rothschild & Cie Banque from 1987-2004, when he stepped down.
Rothschild, Evelyn de: Businessman and banker supposedly worth $20 billion, although many think it’s actually a lot more. In addition to poking Prince Charles (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/prince-charles-prince-of-wales-speaks-with-with-sir-evelyn-news-photo/467631086?adppopup=true), Evelyn has also asserted his dominance of many companies and corporations by acting as Chairman or Director of The Economist (1972-1989), De Beers (1977-1994), IBM, and many others. Evelyn has served as Queen Elizabeth II’s financial advisor for decades (https://www.jewoftheweek.net/2017/11/29/jews-of-the-week-evelyn-de-rothschild-jacob-rothschild/). Evelyn’s wife, Lynn Forester de Rothschild, was completely enamored with Epstein. Before his death, Epstein claimed that he loaned Lynn money when she was going through a divorce in the early ‘90s, before she became a Rothschild (https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2019/08/the-mystery-of-ghislaine-maxwell-epstein-enabler). Lynn was responsible for setting up an introduction between Epstein and Bill Clinton in 1995 (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8362601/Bill-Clinton-confessed-Jeffrey-Epstein-slept-Monica-Lewinsky.html). Alan Dershowitz wrote an essay earlier this month where he opens by saying that he was introduced to Ghislaine Maxwell by Evelyn and Lynn de Rothschild (https://spectator.us/ghislaine-maxwell-know-jeffrey-epstein-alan-dershowitz/). Ghislaine lived in a NYC townhouse that Lynn (allegedly) sold to one of Epstein’s companies for more than $8 million below market value (https://www.businessinsider.com/ghislaine-maxwell-jeffrey-epstein-father-real-estate-assets-foundation-2019-8#until-2016-maxwell-lived-in-a-5-million-new-york-townhouse-bought-by-a-company-with-the-same-address-as-epsteins-business-office-10). While it is widely believed that Ghislaine introduced Epstein to Prince Andrew, there are conflicting accounts that claim that Lynn was the one who introduced the two (https://nypost.com/2020/07/11/ghislaine-maxwell-didnt-introduce-epstein-to-prince-andrew-pal/). The Rothschilds are also extremely close with the Clintons. They even spent part of their honeymoon in the White House during Bill’s presidency back in 2000 (https://www.politico.eu/article/economist-magazine-shareholders-british-commerce-rothschild/). They remain close to this day, as both Evelyn and Lynn have donated and contributed heavily to Hillary’s past campaigns.
Roumugere, Caroline: Carolyn is a jeweller who makes unique pieces inspired by her upbringing in Kenya (http://www.carolynroumeguere.com/about). Her father was a close friend of artist Salvador Dali.
Royle, Hon Lucinda: Wife of Rupert Ponsonby, 7th Baron de Mauley, a British politician. Daughter of Anthony Royle, Baron Fanshawe of Richmond, a Member of Parliament for Richmond, Surrey (1959-1983) and businessman. Royle coincidentally stepped down as MP shortly after the Elm Guest House scandal (https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/elm-guest-house-abuse-scandal-1857494) became known to the public. It turns out that British politicians and other high-ranking members of society were sexually abusing children. All of this happened in Richmond, where Royle served as MP. Of course, nobody has been charged. Oh yeah, the owner of Elm Guest House, Carole Kasir, who supposedly kept a list of Elm Guest House attendees, died under murky circumstances (https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/secret-files-prove-carole-kasir-11506791). Anthony Royle also famously sided with Michael Heseltine over Margaret Thatcher during the 1985 Westland Affair. Heseltine appeared earlier in the black book (check out the G-I thread for more info). Heseltine invested in Conservative Parliament member Harvey Proctor’s business after Proctor was forced to resign after it was revealed he had sexual relationships with and took nude pictures of male prostitutes aged 17-21 at his home (https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/members-interests-top-tories-lose-on-proctors-shop-the-retailer-1445666.html). At the time, it was illegal to have same-sex relations with prostitutes under the age of 21.
Rucellai, Natalie: PR specialist for Rocco Forte Hotels. Used to do PR for Giorgio Armani. The Rucellai family married into the Medici family in 1461. Although the Rucellais are not a Black Nobility family, the Medici family certainly is.
Rudnick, Della: This is actually Della Rounick, the former CEO of the fashion company HE-RO Group. She is now an artist and sculptor.
Russel, Michelle: A senior executive in asset management.
Rust, Marina & Ian: Marina is a former contributing editor at Vogue (again) magazine. She is the granddaughter of Marshall Field III, an investment banker and heir to the Marshall Field department store fortune. Rust often attended the same parties as Ghislaine Maxwell. She is photographed here with Ghislaine, Tom Ford, and Countess Sally Albemarle (https://www.patrickmcmullan.com/photo/0010136), all of whom are in Epstein’s black book. She is also friends with Lauren du Pont of the billionaire family (https://www.newyorksocialdiary.com/traveling-down-memory-lane/). Her husband, Ian Connor is an investment banker at Lazard Freres, a bank that has repeatedly come up during research of Epstein’s contacts. Marina and Ian literally live around the block from Epstein’s NYC mansion.
Rustow, Tim: Uncertain, but my best guess would be the portfolio manager who is the son of Dankwart Rustow, a famous expert in political science and sociology, and brother of historian Marina Rustow.
Rutland Duke and Duchess: David Manners, the 11th Duke of Rutland, is the owner of Belvoir Castle. His wife, Emma Manners (nee Watkins), the Duchess of Rutland, is pictured here in front of the castle (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/emma-manner-duchess-of-rutland-during-the-launch-event-for-news-photo/1206547435?adppopup=true), enjoying her afternoon tea. She runs the commercial activities at Belvoir Castle. Manners has been (allegedly) entangled with Ghislaine Maxwell since the 1980s.
Now for the controversial stuff. The Duke and Duchess hired former MP Harvey Proctor in 2003 to be their private secretary. Proctor is a disgraced MP who was forced to resign in 1987 after it was revealed that he had sexual relationships with and took nude pictures of male prostitutes aged 17-21 at his home (source: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/members-interests-top-tories-lose-on-proctors-shop-the-retailer-1445666.html). At the time, it was illegal to have same-sex relations with prostitutes under the age of 21. There is a wonderful and brief expose here (https://theneedleblog.wordpress.com/2015/01/09/blackmail-the-maxwells-harvey-proctor-and-the-marquis-of-granby/) that builds a strong relationship between Proctor, Manners, and Ghislaine Maxwell, and explains why Manners would hire a disgraced pedophile as his personal secretary, which I will quickly sum up: Robert Maxwell’s newspapers were publishing damaging pieces on Harvey Proctor in 1986, when allegations of his sexual improprieties first started to leak. A threat was made by a caller who said if Maxwell continued running these stories on Proctor, they would reveal that Maxwell’s daughter, Ghislaine, was having an affair with the “son of a Duke.” This would be David Manners, who was not yet Duke of Rutland since his father (the 10th Duke of Rutland) was still alive. Manners dismissed the allegation as “nonsense,” but went on to hire Proctor in 2003, three years after Proctor’s shirtmaking business was liquidated. Some may say that Proctor would have the most to gain by threatening Robert Maxwell back in the ‘80s and that maybe he used that information to find a job with Manners once his shirt business went belly-up. This is all speculation, of course.
Ruttenberg, Eric & Perri: Eric is the co-managing partner at Tinicum, the private investment firm his father founded in 1974. His wife, Perri (nee Peltz), is a former broadcast journalist who worked for NBC, ABC (she worked on the show, 20/20, hosted by pedophile protector and friend of Ghislaine, Barbara Walters), and CNN from 1987-2002. Peltz is a member of the “Tennis Girls” (insert roll eyes emoji), a group that includes Epstein helper Peggy Siegal, Tory Burch, Christina Cuomo (Chris Cuomo’s wife), Ariadne Calvo-Platero, Kitty Sherrill, and Renee Rockefeller (https://pagesix.com/2011/12/23/tough-enough-for-jennet/). Everyone in that group is listed in Epstein’s black book except for Sherrill and Rockefeller. Coincidentally, Perri attended Dalton, the exclusive private high school, in the mid-late ‘70s when Epstein taught there.
Ryder, Mr Nicholas: Uncertain. Some info found but couldn’t confirm either way.
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2020.07.18 14:53 palindromebaby Looking for a specific comedienne.

Ok, so I have a stand up set I want to listen to but I can't remember her name!!! She had sets in Las Vegas, probably around the late 90s, early 2000's. Kind of a Joan Rivers vibe. She had jokes where she referred to her coochie as "Snap the Wonder Clam" and how she was dating a younger man and when she finally decided to date him she was like, "OK, you've seen me in the daylight let's do this." She wore black and had a black bob haircut. Hopefully y'all can help me out!
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2020.07.09 07:41 Justwonderinif Golden State Killer Timeline III

<< Golden State Killer Timeline II
1977: Continued
1978
1979
1980
Golden State Killer Timeline IV>>>
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2020.07.09 07:40 Justwonderinif Golden State Killer Timeline II

<< Golden State Killer Timeline I
1974
1975
1976
1977
Golden State Killer Timeline III >>>
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2020.07.02 07:23 pepeipe My Conversation with Annie Duke

Here is the transcript and audio, here is the opening summary:
Annie joined Tyler to explore how payoffs aren’t always monetary, the benefits and costs of probabilistic thinking, the “magical thinking” behind why people buy fire insurance but usually don’t get prenups, the psychology behind betting on shark migrations, how her most famous linguistics paper took on Steven Pinker, how public policy would change if only the top 500 poker players voted, why she wasn’t surprised to lose Celebrity Apprentice to Joan Rivers, whether Trump has a tell, the number one trait of top poker players, and more.
Here is one bit from Annie:
DUKE: So when I went on my first date with my husband, my brother and brother-in-law immediately decided to make a market, and it was whether we were going to get married. Now to be fair, my husband and I — before we went on our first date, we’d been friends. Both my brother and my brother-in-law knew my eventual husband, but this is when we’re going on our first date. They make a market. I think that my brother-in-law ended up bidding 23.
My brother then called me up, cracking up, that my brother-in-law had bid 23 when we hadn’t been on a first date yet. And I then started laughing at my brother, said, “Well, that means you had to bid 22. Why are you laughing at him? You somehow bid 22. It’s our first date.” Now, that’s because we’re all people who sort of think this way. And so this sort of becomes the fun of the friendship, but there are other people . . .
And this from Annie:
DUKE: My suspicion is that if only the top 500 poker players voted, people would be thinking a lot more about edge cases — where things could go wrong, for sure, because poker players just are obsessed with that. I think that there would be more long-termism as opposed to short-termism, again, because you have to be obsessed with that as a concept. I think that people would be thinking about “What are the unintended consequences? How does this look?”
Another thing that’s really important that poker players think about is, “If I put this policy in that looks like it’s awesome, how can someone come in and find the cracks in it so that it can turn into something bad?” I feel like the top 500 players would definitely be thinking in that way more.
You will have to read or hear the dialogue to take in my many good questions.
The post My Conversation with Annie Duke appeared first on Marginal REVOLUTION.
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2020.06.22 14:33 HippoBigga Kubala, the path to glory of Barcelona's most loved legend: A story of overcoming, adventures, crazy nights, majestic matches and of a good man who made everybody around him happy.

Nothing in Kubala's life was normal. Now that TV series about sportsmen are fashionable, the one that could be made about the adventures of Ladislao Kubala Stecz (Budapest, 1927) would raze through many seasons. In one season we could go deeper into his facet of legendary footballer, capable of changing the way of playing this sport, how he saved his life at the very last moment by not getting on the Torino plane that crashed in Superga, or how he was ten minutes away from signing for Real Madrid or enrolling in the Pirate League of Colombia, all of this in order to end being Barcelona's biggest icon... who ended playing for Espanyol.
We could add a season of adventures due to his incredible escape from communist Hungary. His journey through Italy with a football team, the Hungaria, of stateless people in which in addition to Hungarians also played Croats, Albanians, Romanians and Serbs who were looking for a life as good as they could get. One could also add to this the facet of the social phenomenon that dazzled a country during the dark years of Franco's regime by becoming a pop star, and end up with another season about the legends, real, invented or simply exaggerated, of his adventures in Barcelona's nightclubs.
Everything about Kubala is like a movie.

The legend of the escape.

Born in Budapest to a Hungarian man and a Slovakian woman, he always considered himself as both Hungarian and Slovakian, even when this republic was part of the now extinct Czechoslovakia. By the age of 20, Kubala was a football star known for his performances with Slovan Bratislava and Vasas Budapest. In fact, he had already been capped by Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Later, he would go on to play for Spain, and is still the only player to have been capped by three countries. But fed up with the system that was preventing him from developing his professional football career, he embarked on an escape proper of a movie to the West. He contacted a human trafficking organisation, a mafia that, in exchange for a large amount of money, facilitated a partial escape. As is now the case with criminals who gamble with the lives of people who want to cross the Mediterranean from Africa to Europe or pass to the United States through the southern border, the smugglers did not secure anything. The last part of the journey depended on the luck and expertise of the escapees and often ended tragically.
"I remember that when I escaped from Hungary I was just a kid. The traffickers left us in the middle of a mountain to do the last stretch on foot. We were a large group. The adults gathered the children and gave us palinka. A liquor similar to brandy to get us drunk and fall asleep. A child's cry could alert the border guards patrolling the mountain. And they had orders to shoot to kill. The group split in two. My group was lucky and we were able to win the Austrian border. Once we were safe, we learned that the other group that had travelled with us and took another road was discovered and killed." The chilling story is that of Zoltan Czibor, the son of the former Barça player who tells how he had to flee Hungary with his family to join his father in Italy. The odyssey of Kubala, six years earlier, was mirrored.
The traffickers disguised Kubala as a Russian soldier and put him in a truck that would leave the escapees at an undetermined point in the mountains so that they could cross the border into Austria on their own. Kubala remembered that this journey scared him to death because unlike his comrades, he was a national celebrity and any soldier who checked the military truck would recognize him. He was endangering his life and the lives of those who accompanied him.
When they were left in the mountain on January 27, 1949, Kubala walked, and crossing a river helped by a tire that carried him, managed to reach Innsbuck, Austria, without any documentation. He was a stateless man starting from scratch.
In Austria he managed to sign with Pro Patria, a team from Milan, but he could only play friendly matches. His escape provoked the anger of the Hungarian regime, which denounced him and blocked his registration. Kubala had married Anna Daucik two years earlier, sister of Fernando Daucik, a veteran player of the era who would later become a famous coach. When Kubala fled, he left behind his family, whom he was unable to reunite with until six months later, when Anna was able to cross the border and meet Ladislao in Udine. He arrived with one more member of the family. A baby, her firstborn, whom Kubala did not yet know.
While he is irregularly enrolled in the Pro Patria, he gets the chance to sign with Torino, Italy's dominant team at the time. He is offered a trial match. Nothing better than a friendly match that Il Grande Torino had in Lisbon as a tribute to Xico Ferreira. However, when the Turin team's plane is about to take off, the president of Torino prevents Kubala from boarding because he fears a federal sanction. On the return flight, on 4 May 1949, the Fiat G 212 of Avio Linee Italiana crashed into the retaining wall of the Basilica of Superga due to the wind, poor visibility and an error in the altimeter of the aircraft. At 180 kilometres per hour and with a visibility of 40 metres, the pilot saw the stone wall of the basilica too late when he thought the plane was at 2,000 metres and was actually at 690 metres above sea level. The 31 people who were travelling in that aircraft died. Kubala had saved his life again.

The legend of Hungaria.

With no possibility of playing in Italy because the back then very powerful Italian Communist Party was pressing to prevent people fleeing from countries in the orbit of the USSR from taking refuge in Italy, Kubala had no choice but to form a team of stateless people who hired their services throughout Europe to play friendly matches against whoever hired them.
The team was called Hungaria, was managed by his brother-in-law Fernando Daucik and was mainly made up of Hungarians, although there were also players of other nationalities. It was made up of: Kis, Marik, Torok, Mogoy, Lami, Rákosi, Hrotko, Majteny, Nagy, Kubala, Otto, Licker, Turbeky, Monsider (Croatian), De Lorenzi (Albanian), Szegedi (Romanian) and Arangelovic (Serbian).
They played their first match against Italy's B team, but again pressure from the PCI forced them to play outside Italy. And that is how they arrived in Spain, hired by Santiago Bernabéu. On June 5, 1950, they faced Real Madrid in Chamartin, losing 4-2, but with a stellar performance by Kubala, who scored both of his team's goals. Three days later, they beat the Spanish team that was preparing for the World Cup in Brazil, where they came in fourth, 1-2 again with a great performance by Kubala, who received an offer from Real Madrid to be signed.
Kubala requires that to join the team, Madrid must also hire Daucik as a coach, something that Bernabéu does not agree to. The Madrid coach at that time was the Briton Keeping, a great connoisseur of WM tactics. Daucik is offered to train the Plus Ultra, a Madrid branch that plays in the third division. That negative and the federative problems that drags Kubala cause that Madrid becomes disinterested in his transfer, that was already agreed lacking of some fringes that turned out to be determinant.
The Hungaria moves two days later to Barcelona, where on June 10 plays against Espanyol losing 6-4 in a match with Pepe Samitier, the technical secretary of Barça, in the stands. It is necessary to emphasize that Hungaria had been playing three matches in five days with a very short team and without being able to make substitutions. Even so, Kubala amazes and Samitier does not mess around. Six days after that match, on 16 June 1950, at half past six in the evening, Kubala signed his three-year contract with Barça at the Pasaje Méndez Vigo. Obviously, with Fernando Daucik as coach. President Montal, Sr., signed him as an "amateur player" in order to avoid any trouble for the federation.
Real Madrid rages and is shocked. Pablo Hernández, general secretary of the white entity and Santiago Bernabéu's right hand, assures that Barça had broken a non-aggression pact between both teams and had hired a player with whom they were in talks. Samitier, who was unbeatable in the media, declares that he had been following Kubala for months and that the pact had not been broken because it referred only to players who played in Spanish teams. And Hungaria was not Spanish. In fact, it wasn't from anywhere.
But Kubala's problems didn't end there. He still didn't have a registration card or an international certificate. Vasas in Budapest and the Hungarian Federation had reported him to FIFA. Barça used the weak argument that since professionalism had been abolished in Hungary, any amateur player could choose his destiny. But the fight was not going to be so easy.
Barça, it is fair to say, had the total support of the regime and the Federation to carry out the transfer. At the level of anti-communist propaganda, Kubala was perfect. A young and extraordinary sportsman who fled from the red hell to take refuge in Franco's Spain was a candy too sweet to let go. Muñoz Calero, president of the Federation, rowed in favor of Barça as did Ricardo Cabot, secretary of the organization, who, in addition to his affection for the regime, was a well-known Barcelona supporter.
But the procedures were very slow and Kubala could only play friendly matches. He made his debut against Osasuna on 12 October, scoring two goals on the day the Barça fans knew instantly that they had just signed a star. Then he played against Zaragoza, Frankfurt twice, Girona and the Badalona. In six friendlies he scored 11 goals. The fans and the player himself were eager to meet in an official match. For all this, the Federation to play the role with FIFA fined Barça every time he lined up Kubala with the symbolic figure of 50 pesetas.
It is at this time that Kubala is about to leave everything and go away from Barça. He needed the money and wanted to play at the highest level and in Colombia he was offered the chance to do so. The South American country had organised the so-called Pirate League outside FIFA and many of the world's biggest stars joined, including Alfredo Di Stefano who went to Millonarios in Bogota. Kubala had a tempting offer from Atletico Bucaramanga. With the option of Kubala leaving, events accelerated. To begin with, Barça fixed his financial situation by means of a peculiar amateur contract in which they paid him 1,200 pesetas for "compensation" and 3,800 for "encouragement and overfeeding".
On April 2, 1951, he was granted the status of political refugee as a stateless person, which was a step towards granting him Spanish nationality. But for this step, Kubala first had to be converted to Catholicism through the sacrament of baptism. Every Spaniard had to be a Catholic. Kubala was baptized in Aguilas, Murcia, the birthplace of Muñoz Calero, president of the Federation. It is then when Barça, to avoid problems, settles its differences economically with Vasas, which despite being against capitalism accepts a payment of 300,000 pesetas to provide the transfer, while the Pro Patria, which also complained, is satisfied with 12 million lire.
The Kubala era could now really commence.

The legend on the field.

Kubala made his official debut with Barcelona in Sevilla in a cup match. The Sevillistas at that time were one of the best teams. Sevilla and Barça had developed in that period a great rivalry in the high places of the table. In 1946 Sevilla had stolen the possibility of winning the championship from Barça by drawing in Les Corts on the last day, in 1948 Barça beat the Sevillians in the final of the Eva Perón Cup (which would be the current Supercup) and in that campaign a Barça without Kubala had lost all its options to win La Liga after losing 4-0 in Nervión three days before the end of the season.
The Cup, by that time was played once the regular season was over and in those circumstances the official debut of Kubala took place. On April 29th in Nervion, Barça arrived to play against Sevilla in the middle of a difficult atmosphere. The Andalusians had lost the league in a dramatic outcome when they drew at home in the last match against Atletico Madrid with a refereeing performance that the locals judged scandalous. For further concern, the Federation allowed Kubala to line up with Barça in the first round of the Cup, which in Sevilla was taken as a surprise.
With the stadium full to the flag, Barcelona defeated Sevilla in an exhibition of Kubala. He wasn't just the best of the match but he showed Spain a way of playing football unthinkable until that time: chest controls, shots with curve, millimetric changes of play of 40 meters, protection of the ball with his back, use of the body in the shot and touches with the heel.
Domenech, Sevilla's attacker who was the direct protagonist of that match, explained years later how he remembered that day.
"It was something never seen before. Ramallets kicked it and he would receive her with his chest, or with either of his legs. If you tackled him he would dribble you in a brick. He'd put the ball where he wanted her. Besides, from time to time he changed with César, he'd be a center forward and César would be a midfielder. They drove us crazy. The anger of the people became clamours. We were witnessing something extraordinary. It was like going from black and white cinema to colour," explained the former Sevilla player. The Sevilla crowd, who had welcomed Barça and its new superstar with anger, ended up giving Kubala a standing ovation for every action as if they were watching a glorious bullfighting performance.
Kubala's actions on the field change football forever. Since there was no television, his exploits are reported orally. There is no other way to see it than to go to the field of Les Corts, which is packed for every game Barça plays as a local. It is a very common argument to say that Kubala forced Barça to build the Camp Nou because the old Les Corts was not enough to accommodate all the people who wanted to admire him. Maybe he had an influence, but as the journalist Frederic Porta, author of an interesting biography of Kubala (Kubala, l'heroi que va canviar la història del Barça. Ed. Saldonar) explains, "the truth is that Barça had already bought the land to build the Camp Nou two years before and the idea of making a bigger field already existed, but Kubala advanced everything and justified the change".
Blessed with brutal technique, a sensational strike of the ball and an unusual physical strength, Kubala changed football. He would throw free-kicks over the wall with curve or by making the ball bounce in front of the goalkeeper, he would take penalties (he was practically infallible) with what was later called paradinha and was credited with the Brazilians although he was the first in Europe to do so. Physically he was a bull. In his youth he had practiced boxing and if he didn't become a recognized fighter with a great career it was because he had short arms. His lower body was sensational. He had a butt and legs that allowed him to protect the ball like no one else. Frederic Porta says that "in his time of splendour they measured his thighs and each one had a circumference of 69 centimetres, which would be the waist of one of his companions". He was also capable of running the 100 metres in less than 11 seconds. A total athlete with a very refined technique.
However, that physical strength and the confidence he had in her, for he never avoided a collision, were his downfall. Kubala became the target of a hunt by rival defenders. He never went into hiding and that's why in eleven years at Barcelona he suffered up to eleven injuries of some seriousness. With matches without television, the harshness that bordered on violence was the order of the day. He was being kicked to death.
But Barça was living its most golden period to date. Moreover, the club revolved around Kubala. Frederic Porta compares it with the present time: "Now they say that Messi commands the club and surely he commands, but nothing to do with the influence that Kubala had. Kubala was the boss and even the one who decided the transfers. And no one was surprised. That Barça adopted the socks with the horizontal stripes blaugrana is his imposition. He saw them on the rugby team, liked them and incorporated them into the football team by decree. In fact, it is he who insists on signing Luis Suarez when he impresses him in a match against Deportivo. Kubala was Suarez's first fan, but what happened in the stands, which was divided between Suaristas and Kubalistas, is another matter.
Suarez was eight years younger than Kubala. He arrived at Barcelona at the age of 19, Kubala was 27 and his physique was very punished by his injuries and the life he was living, as he did not deprive himself of anything. If he held out, it was because of privileged genetics.
Therefore, there never was a real competition between them, but there was a lot of influence here from the figure of Helenio Herrera, the Barça manager, who saw Kubala as older and slower and was looking forward to a quick change by the young Galician as the leader of the team. The debate reached the stands and the media. It was an absurd debate, because they didn't play in the same position, with whom Kubala really had a certain rivalry with Eulogio Martínez, who was the one with whom he alternated the position.
Kubala's physical problems were not only due to injuries. He had the whole of Spain in suspense when he suffered a tuberculosis that could have cost him his life. There are apocryphal versions that explain that this tuberculosis was actually a stab wound he suffered in a fight in a cheap pub in the fifth district (Barcelona's Chinatown) and he has to retire to Montseny to recover. Nobody is betting on his return to the pitch if he survives a "hole in the lung the size of a silver bullet" according to the chronicles of the time. But once again, Kubala's ability to survive prevails. He returns to the pitches, but already heavily punished and slowed down.
It is against this backdrop that the 1961 European Cup final arrives, with Kubala arriving at the age of 34 with a herniated disc that barely allows him to walk, but he wants to play. He knows that the club is going through a critical situation despite having reached the final of the maximum trophy for the first time: the club is bankrupt because of the construction of the Camp Nou, the fights in the board of directors are chaotic, Luis Suarez has signed for Inter (the one in Bern will be his last game with Barça), which was where Helenio Herrera had left the team in the hands of Enrique Orizaola.
Kubala tells Orizaola to line him up, that like all the Portuguese will go for him and he can barely move because of the back pain and will play with painkillers, it will give more opportunities to his teammates. But the match is a pile of misfortunes for Barcelona. Ramallets scores an own goal, Barça shoots three times to the damn square posts of the goals (from then on they would change their shape) even Kubala kicked a ball that hit a post, went through the goal line until it hit the other post and came out repelled. Barça lost and Kubala's time at Barcelona came to an end.

The man of the year.

Kubala's significance goes beyond the playing field. According to a vote made for Radio Barcelona by journalist Joaquín Soler Serrano in the mid-50s, the Catalans most loved by their fellow citizens were Doctor Barraquer and Ladislao Kubala.
"He was literally the most famous person in the city, people really venerated him, and even Messi's influence cannot be compared to that of Kubala in those years," explains Porta.
His life off the field was notorious. An unrepentant night owl, it was common to see him in Barcelona's fashionable coffee shops and nightclubs. He was a man who stood out. Alfredo Relaño defines him in some of his articles as "a demigod. Tall, strong, blond with blue eyes and an overflowing personality. He aroused the admiration of men and women alike. An idol". Frederic Porta sums it up with the argument that "he would be the sum of Messi and Beckham and on top of that, he would go out every night".
Faced with Kubala's disorganised life, the Barcelona management decided to set up a private detective agency to follow him at night. The reports of the detectives are still in the Centre de Documentació del FC Barcelona and Frederic Porta published them in the history magazine 'Sàpiens'. In them, he gives a detailed account of the nocturnal wanderings of "Mr. K.", the code name of the Blaugrana star in an exercise in absurd discretion. There is also a letter from a Sabadell businessman in the club's archives, expressing concern that Kubala and Czibor had been "found in a Sabadell establishment after 2.30 in the morning accompanied by some of those ladies who were once gentlemen, I don't know if you understand". What the businessman doesn't explain in the letter is what he was doing in the same place.
Kubala's fondness for drinking was no secret. Helenio Herrera explains in a television interview that "one day at an airport in customs they asked Kubala if he had anything to declare and he said two bottles of whisky. The official asked him to show them to him and he, laughing, touched his belly and said: 'X-ray, I have them inside'. On another occasion, in the same situation, but carrying the bottle in the bag, he was told to leave it at the airport because no alcoholic drinks were allowed to be taken on board. Neither shy nor lazy, he drank it in front of the astonished official.
The legends about the occasions when the night was made longer and he did not arrive at training sessions or matches were recurrent. In that case, he called on the services of Angel Mur Sr., the team masseur who knew where to find him. He would start a pilgrimage through the usual places or floors until he found him, took him to the changing room, gave him a cold shower, a coffee with salt, a massage and played. The fans forgave him everything and were aware that their star was a man of joyful life. But he never failed on the field. Among the crowd at the time there were comments about the Kubala ritual in those games that followed a busy night. "He started off badly, and vaguely, but the signal was when, ten minutes into the game, he rolled up his sleeves as if to say 'I'm here, let's start, I've already cleared off', and the machine started to work.
You can't find anyone in the world who speaks ill of Kubala. Absolutely no one. Everyone highlights his huge heart and that despite being by far the highest paid player of the time (he earned six times more than his teammates) he didn't have a no for anyone. His detachment from money was legendary.
As proof, the anecdote explained by his biographer Porta: "one day he arrived at the dressing room and commented that his car had been stolen and that in the glove compartment he was carrying an envelope with 200,000 pesetas, which was a fortune for the time (a good apartment could cost 130,000 pesetas). When his colleagues tried to encourage him, he simply said: someone who needs it more than I do must have taken it".
It was also usual for him to take off his coat and give it to a poor man who begged in Barcelona's winter, or to take in any Hungarian who came to Barcelona asking for help in his house in Carrer Duquesa d'Orleans. Kubala, remembering his times as a stateless refugee without papers, asked nothing. He would take them home and pay them a boat ticket to America. The motto among the refugees fleeing the Iron Curtain was that "if you get to Barcelona, look for Kubala, he will help you". He never failed.
Later, now retired, he set up a bar next to Czibor in Capitan Arenas Street, the mythical Kep Duna (blue Danube in Hungarian) that became an unofficial refugee reception centre that was monitored by the secret services of the United States, the USSR and the Spanish police. Something like the Rick's Café in the film Casablanca, but in the upper area of Barcelona.
He was the great character of Barcelona loved by all, but there was a moment when this was almost broken, strange as it may seem. It coincided with the defeat in Bern, when a part of the press came to write that "Barça must be de-Kubalized as the Soviet Union must be de-Stalinized" and, especially, when he signed for Espanyol. The earthquake was a huge one.

From the bench to Sarrià.

After the defeat in Bern's final, Kubala announced his retirement from the fields. He had taken the coaching course and was ranked number one in his class. He made a pact with the president Llaudet, who was also an interesting character as we will see, that in principle he would take charge of the footballers' school of the club and that in a couple of years he would be in charge of the first team.
Meanwhile, Barcelona is directed by Lluís Miró who faces a team in disarray. Suarez has been transferred to Inter in the worst decision in the club's history and myths such as Ramallets, Tejada and Czibor were in the decline of their careers. The season starts badly and after losing at Mestalla to Valencia by a humiliating 6-2 that forces the resignation of Miro. It was time for Kubala, who was promoted to the first team in front of the joy of the fans. And the project results from the beginning. The Barça of the second part of season 61-62 recovers in La Liga and finishes second (the distance with the white ones when Kubala arrived was almost insurmountable) and avenges the 6-2 of Mestalla beating Valencia in the Camp Nou 4-0.
Facing the next season, the 62-63, Kubala can make his team by giving painful drops of some of his former teammates as it is the case of Eulogio Martinez or Evaristo. One of Llaudet's reluctances to give Kubala the job of coach was that he would have to manage some of his former teammates.
The positive expectations about Kubala's first full project were frustrated at first when the Blaugrana team had to play the final of the Copa de Ferias against Valencia, the team that caused the fall of Miró and the promotion of Kubala. And the history, by rare that it seems, repeats: Valencia returns to him to put 6-2 to the Barça. The fans explode against the team. In the return match, obviously, there is nothing to do, but Llaudet's ability to self-flagellation has no limits. As Alfredo Relaño writes, the Blaugrana president calls a dinner with the press the day before the game and makes this statement that if it happened today would open all the news.
Llaudet, in front of the press and accompanied by the coach Kubala and Gràcia as captain, asks the fans to forgive him and announces changes in the protocol of the start of the second leg. "Valencia will go out first to receive the applause, then Barcelona, to receive the whistles. Then Kubala will come out, so he can get the thunders. And finally me, so that all the whistles fall on my person, because I am the barcelonist who loves the club the most and who is destined to die on the pitch, if necessary...". He ends his speech crying. As we can see, Gaspart didn't invent anything.
The match ended in a draw and Kubala's project as Barça's coach was doomed. The manager is fired in the middle of the season and then a bomb explodes in Barcelona. Kubala accepts the offer to return to the pitch, but not as a coach, will be as a player and nothing more and nothing less than in Espanyol, Barça's eternal rival.
On 3 September 1963 Espanyol, then Español, announced that Kubala would be hired as a player. At 36 years of age, he was capable of being competitive.
His decision divides the public opinion. On the one hand, Federico Gallo and Juan José Castillo support his decision, on the other hand, Carlos Pardo or Ibáñez Escofet shoot at him. They call him a "Jew who sells himself for a plate of beans", a "traitor" and they see political interests in his decision.
Kubala explains that he wanted to continue playing and that he saw himself capable of doing so, although he accepted that he was not at Barcelona's level. He had received offers from important clubs, including River Plate and Juventus, but he doesn't want to leave Barcelona, where he feels like another Barcelonian. The Espanyol meets his expectations.
His start of the season is not bad, on the contrary, he scores in his first two games, but the team doesn't work out. The coexistence between the veteran newcomer Kubala and the team's symbol, Argilés, is not easy. Scopelli is dismissed as coach and de facto command of the team is given to the two team leaders despite their differences. The crisis erupts when the Spaniard visits the Camp Nou. The periquitos lose by 5-0 in a match in which the Barcelona crowd booed Kubala who they are eager to humiliate with his new team. Even so, at the end of the match, Kubala has a gesture to his former team that shows that he does not hold any grudge against what he has heard from the stands. At the end of the match, he organizes his teammates to make the corridor to Barça applauding the rival in recognition of the exhibition made. That gesture feels bad among the Espanyol fans and among some of his teammates. Argilés does not make the corridor and goes straight to the changing rooms.
The following year, Kubala becomes a manager-player and among the departures that he causes, there is the one of Argilés, but by contrast, Di Stéfano arrives, also hurt by his bad exit from Madrid fighting against Bernabéu.
Di Stefano and Kubala are like brothers. Even though they haven't officially played together, they have a special chemistry. A friendship that is forged when the Argentinian is about to sign for Barcelona.
When Di Stéfano arrives in Barcelona to sign for Español, he stays first at the Avenida Palace Hotel, but after a month he is living in Kubala's house as one of the family. The children of both always maintained a relationship as if they were brothers.
One of the players under Kubala's command was Jose Maria Rodilla, one of the players who would soon form the famous 'Dolphins' forward line. At 80 years of age, Rodilla remembers Kubala.
"I have a wonderful memory of Kubala, I always had a special affection for him. Not in vain, he was the one who signed me for Espanyol", he remembers when answering the call of this newspaper to which he confesses that* "normally I do not make declarations, but to speak about Kubala I do whatever is needed"*.
Rodilla, former teammate at Espanyol, has clear that "he was the best player in the world in terms of technique. Di Stéfano was the best footballer, but he didn't have his technique. Alfredo was more intense and more player of the whole field, but he could not do things that Kubala did"
Those who had the privilege of playing with both of them remember that "for example, Di Stefano wouldn't leave you alone for a minute, he was all over you and the fights were intense, but he always set an example, he never asked you for anything that he didn't do. Kubala was more paternalistic and tolerant. For example, he would ask us to do as he did in training, and while sitting down he would be able to make 3,000 touches on the ball without dropping it. Only he could do that."
Rodilla adds a story that explains Kubala's quality as a player-coach at the age of 38: "We went to play a friendly at Amposta and they called a foul on the edge of the box. Kubala takes the ball and whacks it into the corner. The referee made him repeat it because someone had moved or I don't know what. Kubala takes the ball and wham, back to the square. And the referee tells him that he has to repeat. That day Kubala got angry and left the field."
Rodilla recalls that Kubala's move from Barça to Espanyol created controversy in the city, but that he was oblivious to it. "He was still a magnificent person, I never heard him say a bad word against anyone. He never got into an argument, he was goodness personified, he was unlucky in his time as a coach, but as a coach he is one of the best I've ever had, with a great love for young players and always trying to help you improve."

Boys well, optimal morale.

He extended his playing career for a couple more years by playing for Zurich and even trying out the American adventure at the Toronto Falcons, where he coincides with Branko and Daucik's son. At the age of 40 he played 19 games and scored 5 goals.
In 1968 he returned to Spain and trained the Córdoba team for a short period of time until he was called up to the national team. Kubala will manage the Spanish team until 1980, when he signs for Barcelona again as a coach.
Kubala's debut with Spain was, once again, a propaganda match for the regime. It was played in the Estadio de la Línea de la Concepción against Finland and Spain beat their rivals 6-0 in a match that was no longer useful. Spain had missed out on qualifying for the Mexico '70 World Cup, but the idea of that game was to showcase a great field that could be seen from Gibraltar as if to give jealousy to those in the Rock for the sports culture of Spain. Dictatorship things.
It's true that at that time Spain was struggling more than anything else on the international scene. It did not qualify for the 1974 World Cup because of Katalinski's goal in the play-off match in Frankfurt, and in both the 1978 World Cup and the 1980 European Championship the team fell in the first round, but there is still no one from that era who will make a judgement against Kubala.
"Kubala, one ahead of his time. No doubt he had a lot to do with his past as a footballer. And not just like any other player, like the best! I remember him always saying to me: 'Ruben, you have to get out of the way on the other side of the ball. Look for the space, not the ball. The goal I scored in Yugoslavia has to do with everything he taught me," he told Fermin de la Calle in an interview with AS Ruben Cano, the hero of the famous 'Battle of Belgrade' in the match that took Spain to the World Cup in Argentina. Yes, the one with the goal by Cardeñosa that could have changed Kubala's record with the national team.
He did a lot to improve Spanish football and his idea regarding the incorporation of foreigners to improve the level of Spanish football was key in the future development of the Spanish competitive level.
His players remember him as a didactic person, tactically bold and very close. At a time when fury was the hallmark of the game, Kubala never forgot that he was the heir to the Magyar tradition of the Honved and the Hungary who, by moving the ball, shocked the world the day they destroyed England at Wembley 3-6.
For the average football fan, Kubala may have been a half-hearted coach who embodied an era of the national team in which nothing was won, as has been the case most of the time, and he became popular for his expressions that would now be meme material on social networks. The national team was known as the 'Kubala boys' and the coach's catchphrase before the matches saying "boys well, optimal morale" was the fashionable phrase in the coffee shops of the 70s in Spain.
But among his colleagues, Kubala still deserved reverential respect. "The first goal was authentically Latin, cunningly scored and perfectly studied. I can only congratulate Kubala on his previous tactical work," said German boss Helmut Schön after facing and losing to Spain in a friendly in which the recent world semi-finalist and next world champion fell to the Kubala boys at the Sanchez Pizjuan with two strategic goals from Arieta. Yes, Arieta against Müller. Seeler, Beckembauer, Maier, Netzer and company.
He left the national team in 1980 to join Barça as the coach of Núñez's second project in an operation that was the prelude to what would happen in the World Cup in Russia with Lopetegui. Kubala committed to Barça while he was coach and tried to alternate functions, but Porta refused. Finally, on 8 June 1980, four days before the start of the European Championship, Kubala signed for the Blaugrana team, which he would join after the European Championship.
His second spell at the head of Barça did not go well either and he was dismissed mid-season. He continued his adventure on the bench as coach of Saudi Arabia (in that he was also a pioneer), training Malaga and the Paraguayan national team before retiring from football on the bench of Elche.
He spent his final years in Barcelona as active as ever. Playing with Barça veterans, helping his teammates, not having a no for anyone and playing tennis every day or going for a run or cycling routes exhibiting an enviable physical condition.
Until the light of genius and the glory faded away 18 years ago. A degenerative brain disease put an end to the adventure, but not to the legend of a world football myth. An icon that changed the lives of so many people that they wouldn't fit even in a stadium.
The coffin with the mortal remains of Kubala was carried on shoulders, amidst the applause of the fans who gathered at the doors of the church of Santa Tecla, by Alfredo Di Stéfano, Gustau Biosca, Eduardo Manchón, Estanislao Basora, Joan Segarra, Josep Bartomeu, Luis Suárez, Antoni Ramallets and Gonzalvo III.
He rests in the cemetery of Les Corts, next to the Camp Nou because that is what he left written in his will, while Serrat sang to him about how...
...Pelé was Pelé and Maradona was the one and that's it. Di Stéfano was a pit of mischief. Honour and glory to those who made the sun shine on our football. Everyone has his merits; to each his own, but for me none is like Kubala. Respectable silence is requested, for those who haven't enjoyed him, I'll say four things: he stops it with his head, he drops it on with his chest, he sleeps it off with his left, crosses the pitch with the ball attached to the boot, leaves the midfield and enters the box showing the ball, hides it with his body, pushes with his ass and gets in with his heels. He pisses on the centerback with a dedicated piece. and touches her gently to put her on the path to glory.

by Santi Gimenez for AS.com (2020)

submitted by HippoBigga to Barca [link] [comments]


2020.06.22 13:40 LordVelaryon Kubala, the path to glory of Barcelona's most loved legend: A story of overcoming, adventures, crazy nights, majestic matches and of a good man who made everybody around him happy.

Nothing in Kubala's life was normal. Now that TV series about sportsmen are fashionable, the one that could be made about the adventures of Ladislao Kubala Stecz (Budapest, 1927) would raze through many seasons. In one season we could go deeper into his facet of legendary footballer, capable of changing the way of playing this sport, how he saved his life at the very last moment by not getting on the Torino plane that crashed in Superga, or how he was ten minutes away from signing for Real Madrid or enrolling in the Pirate League of Colombia, all of this in order to end being Barcelona's biggest icon... who ended playing for Espanyol.
We could add a season of adventures due to his incredible escape from communist Hungary. His journey through Italy with a football team, the Hungaria, of stateless people in which in addition to Hungarians also played Croats, Albanians, Romanians and Serbs who were looking for a life as good as they could get. One could also add to this the facet of the social phenomenon that dazzled a country during the dark years of Franco's regime by becoming a pop star, and end up with another season about the legends, real, invented or simply exaggerated, of his adventures in Barcelona's nightclubs.
Everything about Kubala is like a movie.

The legend of the escape.

Born in Budapest to a Hungarian man and a Slovakian woman, he always considered himself as both Hungarian and Slovakian, even when this republic was part of the now extinct Czechoslovakia. By the age of 20, Kubala was a football star known for his performances with Slovan Bratislava and Vasas Budapest. In fact, he had already been capped by Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Later, he would go on to play for Spain, and is still the only player to have been capped by three countries. But fed up with the system that was preventing him from developing his professional football career, he embarked on an escape proper of a movie to the West. He contacted a human trafficking organisation, a mafia that, in exchange for a large amount of money, facilitated a partial escape. As is now the case with criminals who gamble with the lives of people who want to cross the Mediterranean from Africa to Europe or pass to the United States through the southern border, the smugglers did not secure anything. The last part of the journey depended on the luck and expertise of the escapees and often ended tragically.
"I remember that when I escaped from Hungary I was just a kid. The traffickers left us in the middle of a mountain to do the last stretch on foot. We were a large group. The adults gathered the children and gave us palinka. A liquor similar to brandy to get us drunk and fall asleep. A child's cry could alert the border guards patrolling the mountain. And they had orders to shoot to kill. The group split in two. My group was lucky and we were able to win the Austrian border. Once we were safe, we learned that the other group that had travelled with us and took another road was discovered and killed." The chilling story is that of Zoltan Czibor, the son of the former Barça player who tells how he had to flee Hungary with his family to join his father in Italy. The odyssey of Kubala, six years earlier, was mirrored.
The traffickers disguised Kubala as a Russian soldier and put him in a truck that would leave the escapees at an undetermined point in the mountains so that they could cross the border into Austria on their own. Kubala remembered that this journey scared him to death because unlike his comrades, he was a national celebrity and any soldier who checked the military truck would recognize him. He was endangering his life and the lives of those who accompanied him.
When they were left in the mountain on January 27, 1949, Kubala walked, and crossing a river helped by a tire that carried him, managed to reach Innsbuck, Austria, without any documentation. He was a stateless man starting from scratch.
In Austria he managed to sign with Pro Patria, a team from Milan, but he could only play friendly matches. His escape provoked the anger of the Hungarian regime, which denounced him and blocked his registration. Kubala had married Anna Daucik two years earlier, sister of Fernando Daucik, a veteran player of the era who would later become a famous coach. When Kubala fled, he left behind his family, whom he was unable to reunite with until six months later, when Anna was able to cross the border and meet Ladislao in Udine. He arrived with one more member of the family. A baby, her firstborn, whom Kubala did not yet know.
While he is irregularly enrolled in the Pro Patria, he gets the chance to sign with Torino, Italy's dominant team at the time. He is offered a trial match. Nothing better than a friendly match that Il Grande Torino had in Lisbon as a tribute to Xico Ferreira. However, when the Turin team's plane is about to take off, the president of Torino prevents Kubala from boarding because he fears a federal sanction. On the return flight, on 4 May 1949, the Fiat G 212 of Avio Linee Italiana crashed into the retaining wall of the Basilica of Superga due to the wind, poor visibility and an error in the altimeter of the aircraft. At 180 kilometres per hour and with a visibility of 40 metres, the pilot saw the stone wall of the basilica too late when he thought the plane was at 2,000 metres and was actually at 690 metres above sea level. The 31 people who were travelling in that aircraft died. Kubala had saved his life again.

The legend of Hungaria.

With no possibility of playing in Italy because the back then very powerful Italian Communist Party was pressing to prevent people fleeing from countries in the orbit of the USSR from taking refuge in Italy, Kubala had no choice but to form a team of stateless people who hired their services throughout Europe to play friendly matches against whoever hired them.
The team was called Hungaria, was managed by his brother-in-law Fernando Daucik and was mainly made up of Hungarians, although there were also players of other nationalities. It was made up of: Kis, Marik, Torok, Mogoy, Lami, Rákosi, Hrotko, Majteny, Nagy, Kubala, Otto, Licker, Turbeky, Monsider (Croatian), De Lorenzi (Albanian), Szegedi (Romanian) and Arangelovic (Serbian).
They played their first match against Italy's B team, but again pressure from the PCI forced them to play outside Italy. And that is how they arrived in Spain, hired by Santiago Bernabéu. On June 5, 1950, they faced Real Madrid in Chamartin, losing 4-2, but with a stellar performance by Kubala, who scored both of his team's goals. Three days later, they beat the Spanish team that was preparing for the World Cup in Brazil, where they came in fourth, 1-2 again with a great performance by Kubala, who received an offer from Real Madrid to be signed.
Kubala requires that to join the team, Madrid must also hire Daucik as a coach, something that Bernabéu does not agree to. The Madrid coach at that time was the Briton Keeping, a great connoisseur of WM tactics. Daucik is offered to train the Plus Ultra, a Madrid branch that plays in the third division. That negative and the federative problems that drags Kubala cause that Madrid becomes disinterested in his transfer, that was already agreed lacking of some fringes that turned out to be determinant.
The Hungaria moves two days later to Barcelona, where on June 10 plays against Espanyol losing 6-4 in a match with Pepe Samitier, the technical secretary of Barça, in the stands. It is necessary to emphasize that Hungaria had been playing three matches in five days with a very short team and without being able to make substitutions. Even so, Kubala amazes and Samitier does not mess around. Six days after that match, on 16 June 1950, at half past six in the evening, Kubala signed his three-year contract with Barça at the Pasaje Méndez Vigo. Obviously, with Fernando Daucik as coach. President Montal, Sr., signed him as an "amateur player" in order to avoid any trouble for the federation.
Real Madrid rages and is shocked. Pablo Hernández, general secretary of the white entity and Santiago Bernabéu's right hand, assures that Barça had broken a non-aggression pact between both teams and had hired a player with whom they were in talks. Samitier, who was unbeatable in the media, declares that he had been following Kubala for months and that the pact had not been broken because it referred only to players who played in Spanish teams. And Hungaria was not Spanish. In fact, it wasn't from anywhere.
But Kubala's problems didn't end there. He still didn't have a registration card or an international certificate. Vasas in Budapest and the Hungarian Federation had reported him to FIFA. Barça used the weak argument that since professionalism had been abolished in Hungary, any amateur player could choose his destiny. But the fight was not going to be so easy.
Barça, it is fair to say, had the total support of the regime and the Federation to carry out the transfer. At the level of anti-communist propaganda, Kubala was perfect. A young and extraordinary sportsman who fled from the red hell to take refuge in Franco's Spain was a candy too sweet to let go. Muñoz Calero, president of the Federation, rowed in favor of Barça as did Ricardo Cabot, secretary of the organization, who, in addition to his affection for the regime, was a well-known Barcelona supporter.
But the procedures were very slow and Kubala could only play friendly matches. He made his debut against Osasuna on 12 October, scoring two goals on the day the Barça fans knew instantly that they had just signed a star. Then he played against Zaragoza, Frankfurt twice, Girona and the Badalona. In six friendlies he scored 11 goals. The fans and the player himself were eager to meet in an official match. For all this, the Federation to play the role with FIFA fined Barça every time he lined up Kubala with the symbolic figure of 50 pesetas.
It is at this time that Kubala is about to leave everything and go away from Barça. He needed the money and wanted to play at the highest level and in Colombia he was offered the chance to do so. The South American country had organised the so-called Pirate League outside FIFA and many of the world's biggest stars joined, including Alfredo Di Stefano who went to Millonarios in Bogota. Kubala had a tempting offer from Atletico Bucaramanga. With the option of Kubala leaving, events accelerated. To begin with, Barça fixed his financial situation by means of a peculiar amateur contract in which they paid him 1,200 pesetas for "compensation" and 3,800 for "encouragement and overfeeding".
On April 2, 1951, he was granted the status of political refugee as a stateless person, which was a step towards granting him Spanish nationality. But for this step, Kubala first had to be converted to Catholicism through the sacrament of baptism. Every Spaniard had to be a Catholic. Kubala was baptized in Aguilas, Murcia, the birthplace of Muñoz Calero, president of the Federation. It is then when Barça, to avoid problems, settles its differences economically with Vasas, which despite being against capitalism accepts a payment of 300,000 pesetas to provide the transfer, while the Pro Patria, which also complained, is satisfied with 12 million lire.
The Kubala era could now really commence.

The legend on the field.

Kubala made his official debut with Barcelona in Sevilla in a cup match. The Sevillistas at that time were one of the best teams. Sevilla and Barça had developed in that period a great rivalry in the high places of the table. In 1946 Sevilla had stolen the possibility of winning the championship from Barça by drawing in Les Corts on the last day, in 1948 Barça beat the Sevillians in the final of the Eva Perón Cup (which would be the current Supercup) and in that campaign a Barça without Kubala had lost all its options to win La Liga after losing 4-0 in Nervión three days before the end of the season.
The Cup, by that time was played once the regular season was over and in those circumstances the official debut of Kubala took place. On April 29th in Nervion, Barça arrived to play against Sevilla in the middle of a difficult atmosphere. The Andalusians had lost the league in a dramatic outcome when they drew at home in the last match against Atletico Madrid with a refereeing performance that the locals judged scandalous. For further concern, the Federation allowed Kubala to line up with Barça in the first round of the Cup, which in Sevilla was taken as a surprise.
With the stadium full to the flag, Barcelona defeated Sevilla in an exhibition of Kubala. He wasn't just the best of the match but he showed Spain a way of playing football unthinkable until that time: chest controls, shots with curve, millimetric changes of play of 40 meters, protection of the ball with his back, use of the body in the shot and touches with the heel.
Domenech, Sevilla's attacker who was the direct protagonist of that match, explained years later how he remembered that day.
"It was something never seen before. Ramallets kicked it and he would receive her with his chest, or with either of his legs. If you tackled him he would dribble you in a brick. He'd put the ball where he wanted her. Besides, from time to time he changed with César, he'd be a center forward and César would be a midfielder. They drove us crazy. The anger of the people became clamours. We were witnessing something extraordinary. It was like going from black and white cinema to colour," explained the former Sevilla player. The Sevilla crowd, who had welcomed Barça and its new superstar with anger, ended up giving Kubala a standing ovation for every action as if they were watching a glorious bullfighting performance.
Kubala's actions on the field change football forever. Since there was no television, his exploits are reported orally. There is no other way to see it than to go to the field of Les Corts, which is packed for every game Barça plays as a local. It is a very common argument to say that Kubala forced Barça to build the Camp Nou because the old Les Corts was not enough to accommodate all the people who wanted to admire him. Maybe he had an influence, but as the journalist Frederic Porta, author of an interesting biography of Kubala (Kubala, l'heroi que va canviar la història del Barça. Ed. Saldonar) explains, "the truth is that Barça had already bought the land to build the Camp Nou two years before and the idea of making a bigger field already existed, but Kubala advanced everything and justified the change".
Blessed with brutal technique, a sensational strike of the ball and an unusual physical strength, Kubala changed football. He would throw free-kicks over the wall with curve or by making the ball bounce in front of the goalkeeper, he would take penalties (he was practically infallible) with what was later called paradinha and was credited with the Brazilians although he was the first in Europe to do so. Physically he was a bull. In his youth he had practiced boxing and if he didn't become a recognized fighter with a great career it was because he had short arms. His lower body was sensational. He had a butt and legs that allowed him to protect the ball like no one else. Frederic Porta says that "in his time of splendour they measured his thighs and each one had a circumference of 69 centimetres, which would be the waist of one of his companions". He was also capable of running the 100 metres in less than 11 seconds. A total athlete with a very refined technique.
However, that physical strength and the confidence he had in her, for he never avoided a collision, were his downfall. Kubala became the target of a hunt by rival defenders. He never went into hiding and that's why in eleven years at Barcelona he suffered up to eleven injuries of some seriousness. With matches without television, the harshness that bordered on violence was the order of the day. He was being kicked to death.
But Barça was living its most golden period to date. Moreover, the club revolved around Kubala. Frederic Porta compares it with the present time: "Now they say that Messi commands the club and surely he commands, but nothing to do with the influence that Kubala had. Kubala was the boss and even the one who decided the transfers. And no one was surprised. That Barça adopted the socks with the horizontal stripes blaugrana is his imposition. He saw them on the rugby team, liked them and incorporated them into the football team by decree. In fact, it is he who insists on signing Luis Suarez when he impresses him in a match against Deportivo. Kubala was Suarez's first fan, but what happened in the stands, which was divided between Suaristas and Kubalistas, is another matter.
Suarez was eight years younger than Kubala. He arrived at Barcelona at the age of 19, Kubala was 27 and his physique was very punished by his injuries and the life he was living, as he did not deprive himself of anything. If he held out, it was because of privileged genetics.
Therefore, there never was a real competition between them, but there was a lot of influence here from the figure of Helenio Herrera, the Barça manager, who saw Kubala as older and slower and was looking forward to a quick change by the young Galician as the leader of the team. The debate reached the stands and the media. It was an absurd debate, because they didn't play in the same position, with whom Kubala really had a certain rivalry with Eulogio Martínez, who was the one with whom he alternated the position.
Kubala's physical problems were not only due to injuries. He had the whole of Spain in suspense when he suffered a tuberculosis that could have cost him his life. There are apocryphal versions that explain that this tuberculosis was actually a stab wound he suffered in a fight in a cheap pub in the fifth district (Barcelona's Chinatown) and he has to retire to Montseny to recover. Nobody is betting on his return to the pitch if he survives a "hole in the lung the size of a silver bullet" according to the chronicles of the time. But once again, Kubala's ability to survive prevails. He returns to the pitches, but already heavily punished and slowed down.
It is against this backdrop that the 1961 European Cup final arrives, with Kubala arriving at the age of 34 with a herniated disc that barely allows him to walk, but he wants to play. He knows that the club is going through a critical situation despite having reached the final of the maximum trophy for the first time: the club is bankrupt because of the construction of the Camp Nou, the fights in the board of directors are chaotic, Luis Suarez has signed for Inter (the one in Bern will be his last game with Barça), which was where Helenio Herrera had left the team in the hands of Enrique Orizaola.
Kubala tells Orizaola to line him up, that like all the Portuguese will go for him and he can barely move because of the back pain and will play with painkillers, it will give more opportunities to his teammates. But the match is a pile of misfortunes for Barcelona. Ramallets scores an own goal, Barça shoots three times to the damn square posts of the goals (from then on they would change their shape) even Kubala kicked a ball that hit a post, went through the goal line until it hit the other post and came out repelled. Barça lost and Kubala's time at Barcelona came to an end.

The man of the year.

Kubala's significance goes beyond the playing field. According to a vote made for Radio Barcelona by journalist Joaquín Soler Serrano in the mid-50s, the Catalans most loved by their fellow citizens were Doctor Barraquer and Ladislao Kubala.
"He was literally the most famous person in the city, people really venerated him, and even Messi's influence cannot be compared to that of Kubala in those years," explains Porta.
His life off the field was notorious. An unrepentant night owl, it was common to see him in Barcelona's fashionable coffee shops and nightclubs. He was a man who stood out. Alfredo Relaño defines him in some of his articles as "a demigod. Tall, strong, blond with blue eyes and an overflowing personality. He aroused the admiration of men and women alike. An idol". Frederic Porta sums it up with the argument that "he would be the sum of Messi and Beckham and on top of that, he would go out every night".
Faced with Kubala's disorganised life, the Barcelona management decided to set up a private detective agency to follow him at night. The reports of the detectives are still in the Centre de Documentació del FC Barcelona and Frederic Porta published them in the history magazine 'Sàpiens'. In them, he gives a detailed account of the nocturnal wanderings of "Mr. K.", the code name of the Blaugrana star in an exercise in absurd discretion. There is also a letter from a Sabadell businessman in the club's archives, expressing concern that Kubala and Czibor had been "found in a Sabadell establishment after 2.30 in the morning accompanied by some of those ladies who were once gentlemen, I don't know if you understand". What the businessman doesn't explain in the letter is what he was doing in the same place.
Kubala's fondness for drinking was no secret. Helenio Herrera explains in a television interview that "one day at an airport in customs they asked Kubala if he had anything to declare and he said two bottles of whisky. The official asked him to show them to him and he, laughing, touched his belly and said: 'X-ray, I have them inside'. On another occasion, in the same situation, but carrying the bottle in the bag, he was told to leave it at the airport because no alcoholic drinks were allowed to be taken on board. Neither shy nor lazy, he drank it in front of the astonished official.
The legends about the occasions when the night was made longer and he did not arrive at training sessions or matches were recurrent. In that case, he called on the services of Angel Mur Sr., the team masseur who knew where to find him. He would start a pilgrimage through the usual places or floors until he found him, took him to the changing room, gave him a cold shower, a coffee with salt, a massage and played. The fans forgave him everything and were aware that their star was a man of joyful life. But he never failed on the field. Among the crowd at the time there were comments about the Kubala ritual in those games that followed a busy night. "He started off badly, and vaguely, but the signal was when, ten minutes into the game, he rolled up his sleeves as if to say 'I'm here, let's start, I've already cleared off', and the machine started to work.
You can't find anyone in the world who speaks ill of Kubala. Absolutely no one. Everyone highlights his huge heart and that despite being by far the highest paid player of the time (he earned six times more than his teammates) he didn't have a no for anyone. His detachment from money was legendary.
As proof, the anecdote explained by his biographer Porta: "one day he arrived at the dressing room and commented that his car had been stolen and that in the glove compartment he was carrying an envelope with 200,000 pesetas, which was a fortune for the time (a good apartment could cost 130,000 pesetas). When his colleagues tried to encourage him, he simply said: someone who needs it more than I do must have taken it".
It was also usual for him to take off his coat and give it to a poor man who begged in Barcelona's winter, or to take in any Hungarian who came to Barcelona asking for help in his house in Carrer Duquesa d'Orleans. Kubala, remembering his times as a stateless refugee without papers, asked nothing. He would take them home and pay them a boat ticket to America. The motto among the refugees fleeing the Iron Curtain was that "if you get to Barcelona, look for Kubala, he will help you". He never failed.
Later, now retired, he set up a bar next to Czibor in Capitan Arenas Street, the mythical Kep Duna (blue Danube in Hungarian) that became an unofficial refugee reception centre that was monitored by the secret services of the United States, the USSR and the Spanish police. Something like the Rick's Café in the film Casablanca, but in the upper area of Barcelona.
He was the great character of Barcelona loved by all, but there was a moment when this was almost broken, strange as it may seem. It coincided with the defeat in Bern, when a part of the press came to write that "Barça must be de-Kubalized as the Soviet Union must be de-Stalinized" and, especially, when he signed for Espanyol. The earthquake was a huge one.

From the bench to Sarrià.

After the defeat in Bern's final, Kubala announced his retirement from the fields. He had taken the coaching course and was ranked number one in his class. He made a pact with the president Llaudet, who was also an interesting character as we will see, that in principle he would take charge of the footballers' school of the club and that in a couple of years he would be in charge of the first team.
Meanwhile, Barcelona is directed by Lluís Miró who faces a team in disarray. Suarez has been transferred to Inter in the worst decision in the club's history and myths such as Ramallets, Tejada and Czibor were in the decline of their careers. The season starts badly and after losing at Mestalla to Valencia by a humiliating 6-2 that forces the resignation of Miro. It was time for Kubala, who was promoted to the first team in front of the joy of the fans. And the project results from the beginning. The Barça of the second part of season 61-62 recovers in La Liga and finishes second (the distance with the white ones when Kubala arrived was almost insurmountable) and avenges the 6-2 of Mestalla beating Valencia in the Camp Nou 4-0.
Facing the next season, the 62-63, Kubala can make his team by giving painful drops of some of his former teammates as it is the case of Eulogio Martinez or Evaristo. One of Llaudet's reluctances to give Kubala the job of coach was that he would have to manage some of his former teammates.
The positive expectations about Kubala's first full project were frustrated at first when the Blaugrana team had to play the final of the Copa de Ferias against Valencia, the team that caused the fall of Miró and the promotion of Kubala. And the history, by rare that it seems, repeats: Valencia returns to him to put 6-2 to the Barça. The fans explode against the team. In the return match, obviously, there is nothing to do, but Llaudet's ability to self-flagellation has no limits. As Alfredo Relaño writes, the Blaugrana president calls a dinner with the press the day before the game and makes this statement that if it happened today would open all the news.
Llaudet, in front of the press and accompanied by the coach Kubala and Gràcia as captain, asks the fans to forgive him and announces changes in the protocol of the start of the second leg. "Valencia will go out first to receive the applause, then Barcelona, to receive the whistles. Then Kubala will come out, so he can get the thunders. And finally me, so that all the whistles fall on my person, because I am the barcelonist who loves the club the most and who is destined to die on the pitch, if necessary...". He ends his speech crying. As we can see, Gaspart didn't invent anything.
The match ended in a draw and Kubala's project as Barça's coach was doomed. The manager is fired in the middle of the season and then a bomb explodes in Barcelona. Kubala accepts the offer to return to the pitch, but not as a coach, will be as a player and nothing more and nothing less than in Espanyol, Barça's eternal rival.
On 3 September 1963 Espanyol, then Español, announced that Kubala would be hired as a player. At 36 years of age, he was capable of being competitive.
His decision divides the public opinion. On the one hand, Federico Gallo and Juan José Castillo support his decision, on the other hand, Carlos Pardo or Ibáñez Escofet shoot at him. They call him a "Jew who sells himself for a plate of beans", a "traitor" and they see political interests in his decision.
Kubala explains that he wanted to continue playing and that he saw himself capable of doing so, although he accepted that he was not at Barcelona's level. He had received offers from important clubs, including River Plate and Juventus, but he doesn't want to leave Barcelona, where he feels like another Barcelonian. The Espanyol meets his expectations.
His start of the season is not bad, on the contrary, he scores in his first two games, but the team doesn't work out. The coexistence between the veteran newcomer Kubala and the team's symbol, Argilés, is not easy. Scopelli is dismissed as coach and de facto command of the team is given to the two team leaders despite their differences. The crisis erupts when the Spaniard visits the Camp Nou. The periquitos lose by 5-0 in a match in which the Barcelona crowd booed Kubala who they are eager to humiliate with his new team. Even so, at the end of the match, Kubala has a gesture to his former team that shows that he does not hold any grudge against what he has heard from the stands. At the end of the match, he organizes his teammates to make the corridor to Barça applauding the rival in recognition of the exhibition made. That gesture feels bad among the Espanyol fans and among some of his teammates. Argilés does not make the corridor and goes straight to the changing rooms.
The following year, Kubala becomes a manager-player and among the departures that he causes, there is the one of Argilés, but by contrast, Di Stéfano arrives, also hurt by his bad exit from Madrid fighting against Bernabéu.
Di Stefano and Kubala are like brothers. Even though they haven't officially played together, they have a special chemistry. A friendship that is forged when the Argentinian is about to sign for Barcelona.
When Di Stéfano arrives in Barcelona to sign for Español, he stays first at the Avenida Palace Hotel, but after a month he is living in Kubala's house as one of the family. The children of both always maintained a relationship as if they were brothers.
One of the players under Kubala's command was Jose Maria Rodilla, one of the players who would soon form the famous 'Dolphins' forward line. At 80 years of age, Rodilla remembers Kubala.
"I have a wonderful memory of Kubala, I always had a special affection for him. Not in vain, he was the one who signed me for Espanyol", he remembers when answering the call of this newspaper to which he confesses that* "normally I do not make declarations, but to speak about Kubala I do whatever is needed"*.
Rodilla, former teammate at Espanyol, has clear that "he was the best player in the world in terms of technique. Di Stéfano was the best footballer, but he didn't have his technique. Alfredo was more intense and more player of the whole field, but he could not do things that Kubala did"
Those who had the privilege of playing with both of them remember that "for example, Di Stefano wouldn't leave you alone for a minute, he was all over you and the fights were intense, but he always set an example, he never asked you for anything that he didn't do. Kubala was more paternalistic and tolerant. For example, he would ask us to do as he did in training, and while sitting down he would be able to make 3,000 touches on the ball without dropping it. Only he could do that."
Rodilla adds a story that explains Kubala's quality as a player-coach at the age of 38: "We went to play a friendly at Amposta and they called a foul on the edge of the box. Kubala takes the ball and whacks it into the corner. The referee made him repeat it because someone had moved or I don't know what. Kubala takes the ball and wham, back to the square. And the referee tells him that he has to repeat. That day Kubala got angry and left the field."
Rodilla recalls that Kubala's move from Barça to Espanyol created controversy in the city, but that he was oblivious to it. "He was still a magnificent person, I never heard him say a bad word against anyone. He never got into an argument, he was goodness personified, he was unlucky in his time as a coach, but as a coach he is one of the best I've ever had, with a great love for young players and always trying to help you improve."

Boys well, optimal morale.

He extended his playing career for a couple more years by playing for Zurich and even trying out the American adventure at the Toronto Falcons, where he coincides with Branko and Daucik's son. At the age of 40 he played 19 games and scored 5 goals.
In 1968 he returned to Spain and trained the Córdoba team for a short period of time until he was called up to the national team. Kubala will manage the Spanish team until 1980, when he signs for Barcelona again as a coach.
Kubala's debut with Spain was, once again, a propaganda match for the regime. It was played in the Estadio de la Línea de la Concepción against Finland and Spain beat their rivals 6-0 in a match that was no longer useful. Spain had missed out on qualifying for the Mexico '70 World Cup, but the idea of that game was to showcase a great field that could be seen from Gibraltar as if to give jealousy to those in the Rock for the sports culture of Spain. Dictatorship things.
It's true that at that time Spain was struggling more than anything else on the international scene. It did not qualify for the 1974 World Cup because of Katalinski's goal in the play-off match in Frankfurt, and in both the 1978 World Cup and the 1980 European Championship the team fell in the first round, but there is still no one from that era who will make a judgement against Kubala.
"Kubala, one ahead of his time. No doubt he had a lot to do with his past as a footballer. And not just like any other player, like the best! I remember him always saying to me: 'Ruben, you have to get out of the way on the other side of the ball. Look for the space, not the ball. The goal I scored in Yugoslavia has to do with everything he taught me," he told Fermin de la Calle in an interview with AS Ruben Cano, the hero of the famous 'Battle of Belgrade' in the match that took Spain to the World Cup in Argentina. Yes, the one with the goal by Cardeñosa that could have changed Kubala's record with the national team.
He did a lot to improve Spanish football and his idea regarding the incorporation of foreigners to improve the level of Spanish football was key in the future development of the Spanish competitive level.
His players remember him as a didactic person, tactically bold and very close. At a time when fury was the hallmark of the game, Kubala never forgot that he was the heir to the Magyar tradition of the Honved and the Hungary who, by moving the ball, shocked the world the day they destroyed England at Wembley 3-6.
For the average football fan, Kubala may have been a half-hearted coach who embodied an era of the national team in which nothing was won, as has been the case most of the time, and he became popular for his expressions that would now be meme material on social networks. The national team was known as the 'Kubala boys' and the coach's catchphrase before the matches saying "boys well, optimal morale" was the fashionable phrase in the coffee shops of the 70s in Spain.
But among his colleagues, Kubala still deserved reverential respect. "The first goal was authentically Latin, cunningly scored and perfectly studied. I can only congratulate Kubala on his previous tactical work," said German boss Helmut Schön after facing and losing to Spain in a friendly in which the recent world semi-finalist and next world champion fell to the Kubala boys at the Sanchez Pizjuan with two strategic goals from Arieta. Yes, Arieta against Müller. Seeler, Beckembauer, Maier, Netzer and company.
He left the national team in 1980 to join Barça as the coach of Núñez's second project in an operation that was the prelude to what would happen in the World Cup in Russia with Lopetegui. Kubala committed to Barça while he was coach and tried to alternate functions, but Porta refused. Finally, on 8 June 1980, four days before the start of the European Championship, Kubala signed for the Blaugrana team, which he would join after the European Championship.
His second spell at the head of Barça did not go well either and he was dismissed mid-season. He continued his adventure on the bench as coach of Saudi Arabia (in that he was also a pioneer), training Malaga and the Paraguayan national team before retiring from football on the bench of Elche.
He spent his final years in Barcelona as active as ever. Playing with Barça veterans, helping his teammates, not having a no for anyone and playing tennis every day or going for a run or cycling routes exhibiting an enviable physical condition.
Until the light of genius and the glory faded away 18 years ago. A degenerative brain disease put an end to the adventure, but not to the legend of a world football myth. An icon that changed the lives of so many people that they wouldn't fit even in a stadium.
The coffin with the mortal remains of Kubala was carried on shoulders, amidst the applause of the fans who gathered at the doors of the church of Santa Tecla, by Alfredo Di Stéfano, Gustau Biosca, Eduardo Manchón, Estanislao Basora, Joan Segarra, Josep Bartomeu, Luis Suárez, Antoni Ramallets and Gonzalvo III.
He rests in the cemetery of Les Corts, next to the Camp Nou because that is what he left written in his will, while Serrat sang to him about how...
...Pelé was Pelé and Maradona was the one and that's it. Di Stéfano was a pit of mischief. Honour and glory to those who made the sun shine on our football. Everyone has his merits; to each his own, but for me none is like Kubala. Respectable silence is requested, for those who haven't enjoyed him, I'll say four things: he stops it with his head, he drops it on with his chest, he sleeps it off with his left, crosses the pitch with the ball attached to the boot, leaves the midfield and enters the box showing the ball, hides it with his body, pushes with his ass and gets in with his heels. He pisses on the centerback with a dedicated piece. and touches her gently to put her on the path to glory.

by Santi Gimenez for AS.com (2020)

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2020.06.06 02:12 banana_steve cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum

This is a featured list. Click here for more information. John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Not to be confused with John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer. John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel A wooden trophy with a metal oval on top standing in front of a podium, which has a plexiglass trophy on top The permanent trophy of the Campbell Memorial Award and one of the personalized trophies given in 2009 Awarded for The best science fiction novel published in English in the previous calendar year Presented by Center for the Study of Science Fiction First awarded 1973 Most recent winner Sam J. Miller (Blackfish City) Website sfcenter.ku.edu/campbell.htm The John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel, or Campbell Memorial Award, is an annual award presented by the Center for the Study of Science Fiction at the University of Kansas to the author of the best science fiction novel published in English in the preceding calendar year. It is the novel counterpart of the Theodore Sturgeon Award for best short story, awarded by the same organization.[1] The award is named in honor of John W. Campbell (1910–71), whose science fiction writing and role as editor of Analog Science Fiction and Fact made him one of the most influential editors in the early history of science fiction.[2] The award was established in 1973 by writers and critics Harry Harrison and Brian Aldiss "as a way of continuing his efforts to encourage writers to produce their best possible work."[1] Locus magazine has listed it as one of the "major awards" of written science fiction.[3]
The winning novel is selected by a panel of science fiction experts, intended to be "small enough to discuss among its members all of the nominated novels".[1] Among members of the panel have been Gregory Benford, Paul A. Carter, James Gunn, Elizabeth Anne Hull, Christopher McKitterick, Farah Mendlesohn, Pamela Sargent, and Tom Shippey. In 2008 Mendlesohn was replaced with Paul Kincaid, in 2009 Carter left the panel while Paul Di Filippo and Sheila Finch joined, and Lisa Yaszek replaced Di Filippo in 2016. Nominations are submitted by publishers and jurors, and are collated by the panel into a list of finalists to be voted on. The minimum eligible length that a work may be is not formally defined by the center. The winner is selected by May of each year, and is presented at the Campbell Conference awards banquet in June at the University of Kansas in Lawrence as part of the centerpiece of the conference along with the Sturgeon Award. The award has been given at the conference since 1979; prior to then it was awarded at various locations around the world, starting at the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1973.[1] Winners are always invited to attend the ceremony. The Center for the Study of Science Fiction maintains a trophy which records all of the winners on engraved plaques affixed to the sides, and since 2004 winners have received a smaller personalized trophy as well.[4]
During the 47 years the award has been active, 183 authors have had works nominated; 47 of these authors have won. In two years, 1976 and 1994, the panel selected none of the nominees as a winner, while in 1974, 2002, 2009, and 2012 the panel selected two winners rather than one. Frederik Pohl and Joan Slonczewski have each won twice, the only authors to do so, out of four and two nominations, respectively. Kim Stanley Robinson and Paul J. McAuley have won once out of seven nominations, and Jack McDevitt, Ian McDonald, Adam Roberts, and Robert J. Sawyer have won once out of five nominations, while Nancy Kress, Bruce Sterling, and Robert Charles Wilson have won once out of four nominations. Greg Bear has the most nominations without winning at nine, followed by Sheri S. Tepper at six, James K. Morrow at five, and William Gibson, Ken MacLeod, Charles Stross, and Peter Watts at four.
Winners and nominees In the following table, the years correspond to the date of the ceremony, rather than when the novel was first published. Each year links to the corresponding "year in literature". Entries with a blue background and an asterisk (*) next to the writer's name have won the award; those with a white background are the other nominees on the shortlist. Entries with a gray background and a plus sign (+) indicate a year where no novel was selected as the winner.
Languages Deutsch Español فارسی Français Italiano 日本語 Polski Português Русский 8 more Edit links Print/export Download as PDF Printable version This page was last edited on 1 May 2020, at 23:35 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersStatisticsCookie statementMobile viewWikimedia FoundationPowered by MediaWiki
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2020.05.28 13:35 nykteria Models of single lay celibacy

https://www.traditioninaction.org/religious/c061-Single_10.html

The Single Vocation - X

Models of Lay Celibacy in History

Salwa BacharIn this article I will continue to list lay persons in History who voluntarily chose to not enter the religious life or be married. With this I wish to counter those conservative and traditionalist priests who spread the wrong teaching that to be a lay celibate is due to “failed circumstances.” That is, there would be only two valid vocations in the Church: to be religious – priest, monk or nun – or to be married. The historic examples put to rest this biased idea.
St. Cizy de Besançon – (8th century) Among the warriors filled with faith, who joined together to expel the Saracens from Gaul, Cizy of Besançon stood out. St. Cizy was a great warrior and, at the same time, extremely pure, very pious and with excellent manners. He was a descendent of the ancient Dukes of Bourgogne and was as famous for his piety as his military valor.
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St. Catherine of Siena pictured as a young woman in her city
The ancient records of his martyrdom affirm that, under his soldier’s armor, he wore austere dress, making him a man of great gravity and modesty. This soldier of Christ received from Charlemagne the command of one-third of the knights who were defending the plains along the Garonne River. During battle, he was taken prisoner, and was offered his life if he would apostatize and embrace the religion of Mohammed. He refused, and was martyred.
St. Catherine of Siena – (1347-1380) Born into a family with more than 20 children, St. Catherine of Siena began to have mystical revelations at the age of six, which continued throughout her life. She resisted the efforts of her parents to have her marry. Instead, when she was age 16, she became a Third Order Dominican. She counseled Popes and Prelates, and was declared patron saint of Italy in 1939.
Here is the moment to stress that the Third Orders in the Church are not religious orders per se. What the Church call "religious" are both the First Order (priests subjected to religious rules and monks with the three perpetual vows) and the Second Order (nuns with the three perpetual vows).
The Third Order is comprised of lay persons, single or married, who live in the world without vows but with some commitment to the Order. Although members of the Third Orders are occasionally allowed to wear habits – and some saints of Third Orders are represented in habits for the veneration of the faithful – they are not religious, do not have a convent life but live in the world as lay persons.
St. Rose of Lima – (1586-1617) A mystic from Lima, Peru, St. Rose of Lima took a vow of virginity as a child. Though she suffered from poor health, she was extremely beautiful, and as a young woman she had many eligible suitors present themselves to her. She rejected marriage, and also found that it was not God’s will that she enter a convent, though the opportunities did present themselves.
She remained a lay celibate, and became a Third Order Dominican, a path that her role model, St. Catherine of Siena, had taken. She lived a secluded life at home with her family, and would go out only to attend Mass and sell flowers. She is the Patroness of Latin America.
St. Mariana de Jesus de Paredes – (1618-1645) Called the “Lily of Quito,” Mariana de Jesus de Paredes was born into a noble family in Quito. She had a strong religious spirit and would fast and do penance. She took a vow of virginity, and announced to her family that she did not intend to enter a convent, since she believed this to be the will of God.
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The three sisters of Pope St. Pius X, highly regarded by their brother and all who knew them
Like St. Rose of Lima, Mariana also lived a life of seclusion at home with her family. She centered her spiritual life on the nearby Jesuit Church, where she participated in a number of sodalities. She is the first person to be canonized from Ecuador, and is considered Ecuador’s “national heroine.”
Anna, Rosa & Maria Sarto – (19th century-20th century, birth and death dates vary) These three women were the sisters of Pope St. Pius X. They were lay celibates who helped their brother, and, after he became Pope, they were invited by him to live in Rome, where he set up an apartment for them near St. Peter’s Basilica.
They went to the Vatican every Wednesday and Sunday, and on major feasts they would go to the papal Mass, and afterwards would be invited to a meal with Pope St. Pius X. They were so highly-regarded that they were jokingly referred to as “the minor cabinet-ministers,” since their opinions were always taken into consideration by their brother, the Pope.
St. Macrina the Younger – (324-379) Macrina was a 4th century homemaker. At age 12, Macrina was engaged to be married, but when her fiancé died, she decided she would not marry. She dedicated her life to help her mother raise her three younger brothers: St. Basil, St. Gregory of Nyssa, & St. Peter of Sebaste.
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A bold cry to the world proclaiming her innocence
After her siblings had grown up and were completely formed, they used to call her Macrina the Great, as they had in their childhood, a sign of the high respect they had for her.
Bl. Angelina of Montegiove – (1357-1435) Born into a noble family, Angelina consecrated herself to God at a young age, but later her father forced her to marry. Her husband respected her virginity, and after his death she became a Third Order Franciscan. She founded many communities of Third Order women who live and work serving the poor.
St. Joan of Arc – (1412-1431) St. Joan of Arc was a virgin shepherdess who was called by God to lead an army in order to free France from her enemies: the English and the Burgundians, who had joined with them. By following the counsel of the voices she heard, she accomplished the partial liberation of France and the restoration of the legitimate King. She was judged by a Church tribunal, who condemned her as a witch, and she was burned at the stake.
As the flames surrounded her, she cried out to the people: “Know this, all of you – you friends and enemies, you men of my time and you men of the future until the end of the world – know that the voices I heard came from Heaven. With this last proclamation, my mission is accomplished.”
Her body was consumed by her flames, but not her heart. Out of fear and impiety, the English cast her heart into the Seine River.
Here are some examples of lay persons – men and women, nobles and peasants, rich and poor – who prove that lay celibacy is not due to “failed circumstances,” but is the fruit of a free choice any person can make. It is as normal and good to be a lay celibate as to marry or as to enter the priesthood or the religious life.
submitted by nykteria to Christiancelibacy [link] [comments]


2020.05.25 11:46 ChainsForAlice International Missing Children’s day is today. I thought I’d cover some Australian cases. Here is part 3

3 year old Cheryl Grimmer disappeared from a Fairy Meadow, NSW beach in 1970. She went to a change room with her brothers, aged 5 and 7, and disappeared. It was January 12, 1970, when the Grimmers' world was turned upside down. The wind turned bitterly cold about 1.30pm. Carole Grimmer sent her children to shower at the nearby change sheds. After about 10 minutes, Stephen and Ricky returned to tell her that Cheryl, who was wearing her royal blue one-piece swimming costume, was still in the men's change rooms. Mrs Grimmer went to fetch her but Cheryl was nowhere to be found. A 2011 inquest heard Cheryl was likely abducted from outside the change shed. Cheryl's dad Vince died never knowing what happened and her mother is still alive, but unwell. A man was charged with Cheryl's murder after he confessed when he was a teenager but due to a legal technicality the charges were dropped. Call 1800 333 000 if you know what happened. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-09-24/cheryl-grimmer-disappearance-under-review/11543690
RAELENE EATON - On Sunday 7 April 1974, Raelene Eaton (16) and Yvonne Waters (17) were going to go with a friend to the Oxford Hotel in Leederville WA for a band that was playing. Before Raelene left, her Mother was going to a family engagement and as she left, said her daughter ‘Have a good time’. These were the last words from a Mother to her daughter.
Police believe Raelene’s Father drove her to Yvonne’s place in Maylands and they both caught a train from Maylands into Perth. It is likely that they then caught a bus to Leederville. The girls arrived and remained in the Sandgroper Bar of the Oxford Hotel for a short period of time before the two of them decided to go to the White Sands Tavern in Scarborough together. Police believe they caught a bus to Scarborough as a witness saw them walking towards the Tavern from the direction of the bus stop. Raelene and Yvonne arrived at the White Sands Tavern around 4.30pm and were seen socialising with five men at a table inside. The band playing at the time were ‘Fatty Lumpkin’. Two of the five men left the table leaving the girls in the company of three men. The men were described as older than the girls, aged in their early twenties and scruffy in appearance. At closing time, around 6.45pm, the girls walked out of the Tavern with the three men they were socialising with. They all stood outside in the car park talking and when a witness looked back, the group were gone. This is the last known sighting of Raelene and Yvonne. If you have any information in relation to the disappearance of Raelene May Eaton or Yvonne Kay Waters, or their movements around Sunday 7 April 1974, please contact Crime Stoppers on 1800 333 000
https://philosophyofcrime.com/international-cold-case-raelene-eaton-yvonne-waters/
The homicide squad is investigating the disappearance of Veronica Philomena Lockyer, 33, and her baby Adell Sherylee Partridge, who were last seen in the Merredin/Burracoppin area in late 1998. The indigenous mother-of-six led a transient lifestyle, often visited women's hostels in Perth, and has extended family in WA's northern Pilbara and Gascoyne regions.She had six children but was only caring for seven-month-old Adell when she was last seen. Police did not receive a missing persons report until one of Ms Lockyer's other children contacted them after attempting to reconnect with her mother in recent years. 1800 333 000
ABOUT 7am on Thursday June 5, 2003, Bevin Simmonds and his 10-year-old son Brad prepared for a day just like any other day in the knockabout world of professional fishing off the remote west coast of Cape York Peninsula, QLD. It was time to head out in the dinghy to check their shark net off the mouth of the Coleman River, about 10km south of the Aboriginal community of Pormpuraaw, where the family trawler El Dorado was anchored.
Normally Simmonds took his 12-year-old daughter Katie to the net while Brad went with his mother Cathy to clear barramundi nets in the Mitchell River, about 6km to the south. But on that morning Katie had homework to attend to and Simmonds decided to take Brad instead.
On that day the water was dead calm, what fishermen call a "glassy" sea, always a welcome bonus for the hardy breed who regularly tackle the roughest of conditions when hauling in their catches.
Soon after Simmonds, 36, and Brad left in their 5m aluminium dinghy for the shark net 8km offshore, Cathy Simmonds and the couple's third child, four-year-old Sam, headed off in the direction of the barramundi nets. Katie stayed on board with governess Michelle Saunders, who tutored the children via the Cairns School of Distance Education.
Cathy and Bevin usually returned to the El Dorado at about the same time after checking their nets, but on this day Bevin was late. At first Cathy was unconcerned. Her husband had recently extended the length of the shark net, so she reasoned it would take longer to clear the catch. Later, though, she became worried and phoned friends and acquaintances. But nobody had seen Bevin and Brad. Some time before 11am she motored out to the shark net but there was no sign of her husband and son. Later she made a second trip, this time meeting Michael Gater and his mother Joan, members of a fishing family on the Cape. They hadn't seen Bevin and Brad either. Not long after that, concern turned to alarm and Cathy notified police.
Cathy Simmonds and Michael Gater searched for Bevin and Brad until 11pm. At 4am the next day they started again, supported by search and rescue personnel and a contingent of volunteers. Cathy trawled along the shark net with an echo sounder, knowing if the dinghy had sunk, she would find it. But there was nothing.
A large-scale air, land and sea rescue operation covering 1300 square nautical miles followed. For three days fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters and boats scoured a vast area of the region's rivers and waterways. There was still no sign of the dinghy or the missing pair. They had simply disappeared. https://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/feud-identity-accused-of-payback/story-e6freoof-1226252872401?sv=df52060d796670d8ab26a4c8d14a951b
Eleven-year-old Gloria Jean Duncan, also known as Gloria Rigby, disappeared while swimming at Long Beach Point, Sandy Bay, on February 2, 1958.No trace of her has even been found. She was living with her maternal grandmother in North Hobart at the time and went to the beach with another family — the Borons — who were living at the same address. Mrs Olga Boron told police she saw Gloria playing by holding her nose and ducking under the water. Shortly after two of the Borons’ children ran to their mother to say Gloria had gone under but had not come back up. Mrs Boron’s daughter said Gloria had thrown her arms in the air before she submerged for the last time. Mr Boron tried to find Gloria in the water. A search then began involving up to 50 people who were also at the beach. A police officer who was also at the beach co-ordinated the search. Police reported that while the water where the children were playing was shallow, not far away there was a deep channel with a strong current running down towards the mouth of the River Derwent. http://www.australianmissingpersonsregister.com/GloriaRigby.htm
15 year old Ronya Livoni left her mother's home address in Moil, NT at about 11.00pm on Tuesday 9th March 1980.
She is believed to have left home without a change of clothing or any extra money. Ronya failed to report for work the next day. Since this time she has not contacted her parents or employers. To date all enquiries both in the Northern Territory and interstate have been unsuccessful. Concerns are held for her safety. https://www.sbs.com.au/news/missing/where-ronya-livoni
Karen Williams, 16, had spent the evening of Friday August 3, 1990, at Coober Pedy's Opal Inn and Sergio's restaurant. She was last seen by friends early the following morning in a car with a man who said he would drop her home. There remains a $200,000 reward on offer for anyone who provides information leading to an arrest. Detectives say a red or orange Datsun 180B was seen in the area at the time of Ms Williams' disappearance.The vehicle was seen near Tomcat Rd and the Oodnadatta road, several kilometres from Coober Pedy. Police are still condusting searches in Coober Pedy for Karen. 1800 333 000 if you know something. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-05-05/coober-pedy-teen-karen-williams-murdered-prosecution-says/7388324
16-year-old Megan Mulquiney clocked off from her part-time job at Big W in Woden Plaza and walked outside to catch a bus home to nearby Mawson in the ACT. That was just after noon on July 28, 1984. She was never seen again. If you know what happened to Megan, call 1800 333 000 https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-01-17/megan-mulquiney-canberra-cold-case-obscure-note-sparks-appeal/10722516
submitted by ChainsForAlice to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2020.05.23 21:50 Quirky-Motor What everyone has wrong about Ridgway. EXTENSIVE write up on the crimes of Gary Ridgway, misconceptions about him and his crimes, a few comparisons to Bundy, and profiles of women murdered, still missing, and unidentified. Part 1 of 2.

Hello everyone. A few months ago, I posted an extensive write up on the DeOrr Kunz case and later the Asha Degree case with several other missing people’s cases sprinkled in between, which many readers seemed to enjoy. Those can be found here: https://www.reddit.com/UnresolvedMysteries/comments/fcmvmz/extensive_summary_regarding_the_disappearance_of/
Today, I wanted to do a similar long form write up but this time, I wanted to switch gears and talk about Ridgway and his victims.
Terms used
The scene- A term used by Bundy and LE to describe the people with high risk lifestyles those who are homeless, sex workers, exotic dancers, drug users, hitchhikers, and others who are down and out
The Strip- An area of Pacific Highway South near the airport in extreme south Seattle (no longer Seattle) known for the scene. Most GRK victims were last seen in this area.
The Avenue- An area of extreme north Seattle along Aurora Avenue North known for the scene. A handful of women disappeared from this area.
Rainier Avenue and Central District- Neighborhoods in south Seattle near the strip. Usually regarded as cheaper places to live. A handful of women disappeared from here.
The camp- An area of downtown Portland known for prostitution
Dating- A term used to literature to refer to soliciting prostitutes. Ridgway used this term as did many sex workers. I use this term below as that is what is described in GRK literature. I don’t use it dull what was happening in these exchanges.
Boyfriend or protector- Many of the women in this case had boyfriends or protectors who were actually pimps. Which is why some of these women had the same “boyfriends.” If the men who were involved were not believed to be pimps, I tried to note that.
Introduction
Living in the Pacific Northwest everyone you meet seems to have had a close encounter with a notorious criminal. I know a woman who Bundy followed on April 17th 1974 in Ellensburg, Washington before he abducted Susan Rancourt. I talked to a barber once who told me he cut Ridgway’s hair and used to watch Constance Naon (one of Ridgway’s victims) take dates to her place across the street in the Rainier area. In college I used to shop at a Safeway store that Bundy worked at. Some days it seems like everyone I talk to has the same stories, close encounters, and bizarre brushes with some of the worst men in America. This is the story of one of those men, Gary Leon Ridgway.
I believe that Gary Ridgway, the Green River Killer, was a much more prolific predator than most people online seem to think and I wanted discuss these crimes because his victims are often dismissed while they deserve to be remembered.
In the true crime community, there is a near reverence for Ted Bundy. On the other hand, Ridgway is considered boring and banal. These feelings of course are perpetrated Bob Keppel’s book, Riverman; Ted Bundy and I hunt for the Green River Killer which contains large swathes of interviews from an incarcerated Ted Bundy. King County authorities interviewed Bundy on Florida’s death row in hopes of getting confessions out of him during the 1980s. Instead Bundy wanted to talk about the new murderer plaguing his home state, the Green River Killer. In his interviews, Bundy provides interesting insight into the mind a killer and many of his predictions about the “Riverman” turned out to be true. Naturally, some of his predictions were also false. Bundy, the master manipulator, was able create a narrative about Ridgway and his victims which has bled into the public consciousness. The descriptions of Ridgway’s crimes have been controlled by Ted Bundy’s opinions and his apparent distaste for Ridgway. In discussions on this case I often see people say things like “Ridgway isn’t interesting to me because his victims were high risk” or “Ridgway was dumb, he was so lucky he wasn’t caught.” In my opinion this is unfair to victims of the Green River Killer – in addition to being false. Of course, Bundy is not the only reason people say these things but his opinions have shaped this case. At the end of the day, Bundy should not have a say in how these crimes are perceived.
Most importantly, the victims of these men (and other killers) are not entertainment, these are real people who lives were stolen and all of their stories deserve to be told, even if the man who killed them is considered by some to be “uninteresting.”
Additionally, no one wants to compare to Bundy and Ridgway but I believe the men have more similarities than Bundy wanted people to believe. Bundy hated being compared to the Riverman and I think it is because Bundy knew that the Riverman was more prolific than Bundy could ever be. Bundy’s ego led him to adopt a dismissive attitude towards this crime spree and he always bristled when compared to the “Riverman” and unfortunately these ideas have become gospel. These assumptions aside, I think Ridgway was a much more prolific killer than anyone will ever be able to prove.
There are so many misconceptions about Gary Ridgway that I want to discuss. People say that Ridgway was stupid, he was free to kill as long as he did because no one cared, and finally that he only was able to be “get away with it” because all of his victims were sex workers. Not only are these ideas false, these misconceptions invalidate the stories of Ridgway’s victims.
Intelligence
The first thing I think is often talked about when discussing Ridgway was his intelligence or lack thereof. While it is true that IQ tests showed that Ridgway hovered on the line between impaired and typical, and he apparently had a learning disability that affected his school performance, I will always argue that Ridgway was no dummy. I have worked with the disabled population for several years. That experience taught me that IQ is a bunk way to measure intelligence. Some of my acquaintances have higher IQ scores than Ridgway’s 80, but struggle to keep down jobs or lack social skills. On the other hand, people I have worked with lower IQs (62-80) than that have attended 2-year college, kept down jobs, married, and had families. IQ in and of itself is poor determinate of intelligence. In my experience, IQ seems to measure processing speed, not intelligence. I am not sure if this 100% scientifically accurate, it is just my experience but I think it is worth noting. All that to say, I don’t think Ridgway was nearly as impaired as many armchair detectives make him out to be. The women he fooled were street smart and don’t deserve less attention simply because they were fooled by a “dumb” predator. Perpetrating this myth does a disservice to Ridgway’s victims. I am not arguing that Ridgway was a criminal mastermind of above average intelligence, that is simply not true. I am simply trying to demonstrate that Ridgway cold and calculating, not blundering and impaired.
Forensic Counter Measures
Ridgway’s intelligence is also evidenced by his crime spree and the forensic countermeasures he employed. Many online sleuths have used this information to show Ridgway’s lack of intelligence, but I would argue that his forensic counter measures actually worked. The Riverman would put used gum, beer cans, and cigarette butts near his body dumping grounds. He also put airport and hotel pamphlets near the bodies to make law enforcement think that the killer was a traveling business man which is why his crimes would start and stop. While these attempts at misdirection did not fool law enforcement for very long, it did muddy the water with media coverage. It was reported that the killer was a traveler, a smoker, or a guy who liked big red gum even though Ridgway was none of these things. These little attempts at misdirection fooled the general public in Ridgway’s favor and precious time and resources were wasted forensically testing these items.
When Ridgway began dumping victims in the Portland area law enforcement incorrectly believed that their killer had moved and they minimized their efforts in Seattle, falling right into Ridgway’s trap. The killer also changed his car regularly and made sure that he created false trails. Ridgway changed his car often, he used his own cars sometimes but he also drove his brother’s truck, his parents station wagon and his girlfriend’s/wives’ cars. As many know Gary was employed as a truck painter. He spent a lot of his time at home painting and working on his cars, removing and replacing canopies and just in general altering his vehicles. This allowed Ridgway to move about more freely as he was not seen in only one type of car. This is in stark contrast to Ted who repeatedly used his tan colored bug until it was linked to the murders. At that point Bundy would use Liz Kendall’s bug or make slight modifications to his own car but these efforts paled in comparison to Ridgway’s efforts to conceal his vehicles.
Ridgway also made sure the women he killed were clean when he dumped their bodies. He would have them shower and used the bathroom before his crimes, which had a three-fold purpose. First it put his victims at ease around him. Second, it made his clean up easier (victims wet themselves when being strangled and Gary didn’t like doing extra laundry), and third it removed evidence from his victims’ bodies. This is a just another example of how Ridgway was able go undetected for so long. He thought about his crimes, learned things and then changed his methods to iron out bumps in his murderous plans.
When questioned by investigators he always had explanations for his whereabouts and did not deny “dating” women on the SeaTac strip. Ridgway even used women he had been seeing to create alibis and a false sense of security. In his confession he explained that he would often pick up sex workers for dates repeatedly and not kill or hurt them in order to create a facade that he was a nice guy.
All of these things suggest that Ridgway wasn’t the bumbling criminal he was made out to be.
Victims
Another misconception in the Green River case regards victimology. Many people seem to think that all of Ridgway’s victims were sex workers which is simply not true. Contrary to popular belief some of the Green River victims were not prostitutes, although most did lead high risk lifestyles and were part of the “scene” as Bundy called it. Many were homeless, addicts, sex workers, exotic dancers, and hitch hikers, but not all. Carol Ann Christensen had no connections to this scene at all and worked as a waitress at a bar and grill near the airport. Opal Mills, a local high school student, had no arrests for prostitution (or anything else) but was known to hitch hike. Cheryl Wims was not a known sex worker but did struggle with addiction to drugs and alcohol. Ridgway’s victimology was actually much broader than most people assume.
Bundy used this misinformation about GRK’s victims to “prove” that he was a better criminal than the Riverman as Bundy abducted low risk victims, even though we know Bundy killed at least several hitchhikers who were unfortunate enough to get in his car. And Bundy, ever the coward, often chose very small willowy women to victimize. Ridgway on the other hand was physically strong even though he appeared slight. Ridgway was able to control and subdue many women, and while many were small and young some of his victims outweighed him, and a few were taller than him. My point being, both men were cowards and monsters who took advantage of all types of women, their victimology is not that different. Both men killed both low risk and high-risk victims, but of course Bundy doesn’t like to focus on his high-risk victims.
The abduction and murders of women not in the scene, (waitresses, moms at bus stops, and daycare workers) demonstrates that Ridgway was intelligent and organized enough to pull off meticulous crimes which were never solved... he just preferred easier targets.
Investigation
Another misconception about Ridgway is that he was only was allowed to kill due to the women he victimized; this is a partial misconception. In 1982, right after the first several bodies were found floating in the Green River, a task force was formed made up of 25 detectives from both the city of Kent and King County. For the next 19 years, as many as 40 detectives at a time (70 people if you include officers and support staff) worked solely on this case. At its smallest, 4 or 6 detectives were at work following up on tips. For years, evidence was collected. Men were followed and interviewed. Suspect lists were compiled. When this crime spree occurred, there was no AFIS (automated finger print identification system), no DNA testing, and little cooperation between agencies. A single finger print could take two months to process. Then it had to be compared manually and sent from state to state to check for matches. At the end of the day, the tab for this investigation cost a whopping $30 million dollars.
In the late 1980s detective Matt Haney had a hunch that Ridgway was the most likely killer but it took years for his suspicions to be proved. Using a tip from Marie Malvar’s family, he collected Ridgeway’s DNA in 1987, the same year DNA testing became available. Most other detectives believed other, better suspects were the ones to blame.
Despite the best technology at the time and Haney’s suspicions, Ridgway was not caught. As mentioned above, Ridgway was always a Green River suspect. From his first arrest for solicitation in 1982 until the day he was apprehended Ridgway was among the hundreds of men suspected of being the killer. Despite being on this list, Ridgway evaded capture because on paper, he was a poor suspect. Ridgway was a very typical man in both appearance and life style. He held down the same job for years. He was married and even fathered a son. In his life he was generally even keeled and unremarkable. He was investigated by the Green River Task force several times. Gary’s coworkers even named him “Green River Gary” a moniker he hated, but even his coworkers claimed they were just teasing the awkward guy at work, they did not actually believe he was capable of committing such atrocities.
Moreover, Ridgway had no record of violent offenses. Several violent crimes from his past would come out once he was arrested, but none of these were on his official police record. In the early 80s he was accused of assaulting a sex worker, but the charges were dropped when the woman did not want to testify. Ridgway also had a juvenile record for stabbing a 6-year-old boy, but being a juvenile at the time those records were sealed.
Ridgway was always willing to work with investigators and readily admitted he “dated” women on the SeaTac strip. He allowed himself to be interviewed but nothing solid was ever linked to him. He even gave hair samples and passed two polygraphs. Additionally, Ridgway gained the trust of many working girls he did not kill. He purposely left many women he “dated” unharmed. Some prostitutes who were interviewed by the task force inadvertently protected Ridgway by painting the picture that he was a harmless John who showed them pictures of his son and was polite. Sometimes, he even bought them burgers to eat. This misdirection on Ridgway’s part was just one reason he was never apprehended.
Ridgway was so different than any other captured serial killer at the time that the FBI had to change their profiling techniques and knowledge of serial killers completely when Ridgeway was caught. From the 1980s when profiling was in its infancy until the early 2000s, it was generally believed that serial killers had high IQ's and were of above average intelligence. It was believed that serial killers had a hard time staying in relationships or keeping down jobs. Further, many experts in the field claimed that serial killers basked in the glory of their evil deeds, taunted police, and watched news coverage of their crimes. It was also taken as gospel that serial killers could not stop once they started killing and in general killers did not cross racial lines. None of these things applied to Gary Ridgway, adding to law enforcement’s belief that he was not a “good suspect.” (While Ridgway did write one anonymous letter to a newspaper, he did not aggressively flaunt his suspect status, or openly taunt police as some of the other men did.)
When DNA linked Ridgway to his murders, task force members weren’t totally shocked but they were surprised that it did not match one of the better suspects such as Melvyn Foster, William J. Stevens II, or any one of the violent pimps, husbands, boyfriends and exes who had been interviewed. They assumed their killer would be one of the men with more violence in his background, possibly a rape conviction, or one of suspects taunting them with letters and phone calls, but it wasn’t. Only detective Matt Haney wasn’t surprised.
As the phrase goes, hind sight is 20/20. I think this is a good saying to remember with this case. Once Ridgway was arrested many pieces fell into place and it painted a picture of an unhinged killer roaming King County, but no one piece of evidence was a smoking gun in this case. Ridgway dressed like the killer, plaid shirts and jeans but so did half of the working-class men in King County. Ridgway drove vehicles similar to the one reported by many witnesses, but how many men drove by the airport in tan or blue pickups and aged station wagons? Marie Malvar’s boyfriend was convinced Gary’s truck was the one he saw Marie climb into before her disappearance, but when Ridgway’s home was searched nothing of Marie’s was there. Investigators hit a brick wall, but kept Gary Ridgway in the back of their minds. Every little piece of evidence was part of a puzzle in this case but nothing conclusively tied Ridgway to anything more than being a client of many of the working girls in the area. This tip by Marie’s family and boyfriend was what lead Det. Haney to collect Ridgway’s DNA in ’87.
NOTE- before I go on, I just want to say that it would be naïve of me to pretend that the victims’ professions and life styles did not affect the investigation. It absolutely did. It affected public perceptions, law enforcement response, and media attention and these women did not receive the same attention as the Ted victims from seven years prior. For example, in late 1983, citizens called for a public forum and called for an “end of prostitution.” Detective Mullinax suggested that the killer was the problem, not the prostitutes and there were some very awkward moments before the citizens told him they just wanted Seattle to be free of sex workers. This was just one example of the public opinion not being kind to these women.
In this piece, I simply want to point out that law enforcement response was not as minimal as some people make it out to be. There have been many cases where law enforcement has completely dropped the ball when investigating the murders and disappearances of sex workers such as the Grim Sleeper investigation, but I do not think the Green River Task force deserves to be placed in the same category.
Additionally, if Ridgway was not caught ONLY because the police blatantly disregarded the cases of sex workers, then why wasn’t he caught after killing daycare worker Maureen Freeney? Or blonde waitress Carol Anne Christensen? But all measures these two women came from caring families, were white, and did not live in the scene, and were reported missing right away. If Ridgway was only going free due to poor law enforcement response, then he should have been caught after the deaths of the women above, but he was not.
Casualties
Because of the nature of Ridgway’s victims, media coverage was initially slim and many victims of Ridgway were never reported missing at all. Gary Ridgway was convicted or 49 murders although he admitted to over 71. In recent articles Ridgway has even confessed to leaving 80 bodies in King County alone. Investigators doubt King County was the only county that Ridgway operated in and it is generally believed that a string of bodies found in Tacoma and Portland, Oregon were the work of the Riverman. Some of those women are discussed below. Because of this information I am inclined to believe that Ridgway has many, many more victims who have never been found, who are unidentified, who were never reported missing or whose deaths were attributed to other things. Many missing women have been placed on the “Green River List” because the pool of potential victims is much larger than only missing sex workers. With the addition of these victims I think it is very possible that Ridgway’s victim count far surpasses any official numbers and may make him one of the worst serial killers in America.
Some of the women I believe were victimized by Ridgway are profiled below.
In conclusion, all of these things point to Ridgway being a much more prolific, cunning killer than many have made him out to be. If Ridgway’s known victim count is 70 (charged with 49) and he himself claims there is 80 bodies in King County alone, I think it is safe to assume the real number may be closer to 100.
Ridgway has only been charged with homicides if he both confessed to and there was one or more pieces of evidence against him. For example, if he led investigators to a body he was charged with that murder and all the murders of the women he left in the same cluster. He has also been charged with other cases if there was circumstantial evidence, fiber evidence, paint chip evidence, or DNA. He has not been charged with the murders of women still missing or women whose cases cannot be linked to him in corroborating way, which is why the confession list is so much longer than the charged list. Also please remember that mass murders are not known for their honesty and we have to take confessions with a grain of salt.
The official Green River Victim list is challenging to compile because different agencies have different lists, some add women are still missing while others add only known homicides. Some add all suspected victims, some do not. Some add victims to the list only if Ridgway is the prime suspect, and other lists add victims whose cases have other prime suspects but Ridgway is still a possibility.
Below I have completed write ups of women I believe were victims of Ridgway as well as a section to remember his proven victims, both known and unknown.
NOTE- I want this section to tell the women’s stories in a respectful way and initially I did not want to focus on either their professions or their physical appearances, but I was also wanted this section to be authentic and I don’t want to sugar coat any of these stories. For many of the victims there is very, very little information available. I think this is why sometimes their appearances are mentioned as it sounds better to say “At age 21, she was a tall woman with thick red hair and a great smile” rather than she died at 21. Additionally, some of these victims’ stories are not very pleasant and a in a few cases information from family and friends is unflattering or downright negative (Wendy Coffield and Marta Reeves specifically). Rather than skip these women or pretend these things did not occur I chose to include them in the summaries below. I added as many positives as I could and tried (key word tried) to shy away from information solely about their appearances or criminal records but sometimes no other information is available. I hope everyone can understand that my intention is to remember these women and their lives in the best possible way while realizing that not everything is positive. I ask you for only respect down in the comments. Thank you.
In remembrance
Gary Ridgway pled guilty to the homicides of the 49 people profiled in this piece. (Because this is a mystery sub reddit and the write-up will have to be put into broken into several pieces, I will begin with the Jane Does Ridgway confessed to killing. All other victims both potential and confirmed are placed in chronological order to the best of my ability.)
Jane Doe B-10 was a murder victim who was found in 1984, near the remains of Cheryl Wims. She was a white female between the ages of 12 and 19. She most likely died in the summer of 1983. She may have had brown hair and was around 5’5’ and 120 lbs. She was likely left-handed. She had a healed injury to the front of the left side of her skull. She is not Rose Cole, Janel Peterson, Susan Cappel, Lisa Dickinson, Wendy Huggy, Kase Lee, Keli McGinnis, Anna Anderson, Kristi Vorak, Amy Matthews, Teresa Hammon, Cheryl Wyant, Denise Dorfman, Carol Edwards, Linda Jackson, Angela Meeker, Andria Bailey, Dean Peters, Joan Hall, Patricia LeBlanc, MaryJo Long, or Kerry Johnson.
Jane Doe B-17’s bones were found twice. Some bones were found in 1984 and some more were found in 1986. She was most likely a white female, aged 14-19, around 5’4”- 5’8” and average weight, around 120-140 lbs. She most likely died in 1983. Ridgway said she died in Spring or Summer 1983. Isotope testing shows she is possibly from the Northern United states (Alaska, Montana, Idaho, North Dakota) or Canada. She is not Rose Cole, Janel Peterson, Susan Cappel, Lisa Dickinson, Wendy Huggy, Kase Lee, Keli McGinnis, Anna Anderson, Kristi Vorak, Linda Jackson, Andria Bailey, Joan Hall, Patricia LeBlanc, MaryJo Long, Carol Donn, Barbara Cotton, Pollyanne Carter or Kerry Johnson.
Jane Doe B- 20 was a murder victim who was discovered in 2003 after Ridgway led investigators to her body. Her skull was not recovered so no composite can be made and no race can be determined. She died in between 1973-1993 but most likely died in the late 1970s. She was likely 13-24 years old. Ridgway says she was a white woman about 20 years old with brown or blonde shoulder length hair who he killed in Summer ’82 or ’83. Ridgeway claims to have started his crime spree in ’82 but it could have been earlier. He does not remember killing anyone in the 1970s but admits it is possible. Jane Doe B-20 is not Keli McGinnis, Andria Bailey, Cora McGuirk, or Deborah Tomlinson.
Wendy Lee Coffield was a young woman whom life had never treated kindly. She was a junior high dropout, a chronic runaway, and a hitchhiker. She never had the chance to land on her feet and start over. She was only 16 when she was murdered in 1982. To add insult to injury, her own family even said they weren’t surprised when her “lifestyle” caught up with her. Gisele A. Lovvorn was a 17-year-old Dead Head and free spirit who wandered the country watching Grateful Dead shows with her on again off again boyfriend. In early high school was a straight A student before dropping out. In the summer of 1982, she called her parents in California to tell them she was going to travel home and re-enroll in high school. She left her apartment one Saturday in July at 1 pm to “turn 3 or 4 tricks” she never made it home and her parents were never able to see their free-spirited daughter again. Debra Lynn Bonner was 22 when her body was found in the Green River. She had dreams of getting a GED and joining the navy but an abusive relationship and addiction lead her to a life on the streets. Despite her profession, Debra called her parents regularly and was trying to pay off her debt (She had several unpaid tickets in Tacoma). She was planning to visit her father after he had an eye operation but she never made it home. Marcia Faye Chapman nicknamed Tiny, was a mother of three who engaged in sex work only to support the three children she loved so much. She left her apartment one August evening and disappeared into the night. She was only 31 years old. Cynthia Jean Hinds had no criminal record but frequented the streets of south Seattle. Everybody called the 17-year-old her nickname, Cookie. Her boyfriend and probable pimp reported that he last saw her get into a black Jeep on August 11th 1982. Her body was later recovered from the Green River. Opal Charmaine Mills was a biracial 16-year-old who, according to her brother, struggled to fit in in a racially divided world. She never got the chance to learn to be comfortable in her own skin because she disappeared after going to work in 1982. An occasional hitch hiker, Opal had no other links to the “scene.” Opal and her friend Cookie (Hinds) had been hired to do some painting near Angel Lake park. Opal called her parents to pick her up from work, but she never made it home. Terry Renee Milligan, a 15-year-old, hadn’t been seen for several weeks when her live-in boyfriend reported her missing and then immediately skipped town. Terry was a bright student who wanted to study computer science in college and dreamed of going to Yale. Terry gave birth to a son as a teenager and her hopes of college changed course, although friends have always explained that Terry adored her son and care of him the best she could. She was also musically inclined and sang in the church band all throughout her childhood. She was seen last arguing with another woman outside her apartment after that she disappeared. Mary Bridgett Meehan was adopted as a young child and grew up in Bellevue, a wealthy suburb east of Seattle. She was a compassionate soul who loved animals and children. She wanted to be a mother. Two miscarriages at ages 15 and 16 left her broken inside, her family and friends explained that she was never the same. She starting using drugs and drifted around the Seattle area and began engaging in sex work. Later, Mary gave up another baby for adoption after her boyfriend kicked her out because he didn’t want kids. But unfortunately, less than a year later, the cycle began again. Mary was back living with a dead-beat boyfriend and pregnant, except this time she was determined to be a good, stable mother, but she never got the chance. She left her motel room and vanished into the night at 8 months pregnant in September 1982.
Debra Lorraine Estes went by the name Betty Jones on the street. She was barely 15 and had entered the scene five years earlier at age 10. Her parents were always worried for her, driving the streets looking for their daughter and bailing her out of the King County jail under various names and aliases. Her pimp was a sleazy older man whom occasionally lived with her and her friend Becky Marrero. She was last known to be alive in September 1982, but may have been alive into December. Linda Rule’s parents divorced when she was a teen and the family disintegrated with each person taking their own paths. She last seen leaving her apartment and walking to Kmart on Aurora Avenue north, to buy clothes. When she did not arrive back home, her boyfriend assumed she had been arrested, but he couldn’t find her at any of the local jails. He did not think Linda was working as it was rare to see girls working Aurora Avenue during the day time. He immediately filed a missing person’s report. Unlike many other men in this case, her boyfriend was not believed to be a pimp. 16-year-old Linda and her boyfriend were saving up for their wedding and but it would never come.
Denise Darcel Bush, a 23-year-old Portland native had traveled to the SeaTac strip after hearing that money was better in Seattle. She suffered from epilepsy but used medication to keep it under control. She was last seen crossing the street to buy cigarettes. She was never reported missing and her friends all assumed she had simply had decided to go back to Portland. At the time, it was hard to know if she or many of the other girls left willingly or suffered a much worse fate. Shawnda Leea Summers from Bellevue, Washington loved going to the beach. She was last seen at the same intersection on the strip, the day after Denise Bush was last seen. She was not reported missing for months and some girls thought she had moved to Portland to work. Her parents looked for her whenever they could but Shawnda would never reach her 19th birthday.
Shirley Marie Sherrill at age 19 was described as tall and beautiful. She was last seen in the China town area of Seattle having lunch with a friend. They both left the restaurant to work and were picked up by different men. Shirley was never seen again. Like Shawnda and Denise, she disappeared in October 1982. Becky Marrero was the 20-year-old friend of Debra Estes. The two lived together at a motel on the SeaTac strip on and off. In the fall of 1982, Becky left her two-year-old son with her parents and told them she was leaving for a while and going to a place that “babies shouldn’t be”, but she would be back eventually. She packed her bags, borrowed some money from her father to rent a room and vanished. Becky was registered as living at a motel on the strip until December 1st ’82, along with her friend Debra Estes. She never made it home for Christmas like she said she would. Colleen Renee Brockman was 15 years old when she was last seen alive. She worked the SeaTac strip, but her friend Bunny and other girls still thought she was naïve. She trusted her customers wholeheartedly and enjoyed the gifts and dinner dates she got from johns. She was identified through the braces that were still on her teeth when her skull was found in Pierce County years after she was last seen. Delores Lavern Williams was a tall, slender, African American girl with a lovely smile. She worked near the Red Lion hotel near the airport and generally “dated” wealthier, traveling johns. In early 1983 locals and friends realized they hadn’t seen her in a few weeks. She was reported missing. She was only 17 years old. Alma Ann Smith hailed from wine country and was born in Walla Walla Washington. In the 8th or 9th grade she began traveling to Seattle alone on the weekends, something that confused her younger friends. She eventually moved to Seattle and was last seen entering a blue truck with a very average looking male. Gail Matthews was drifting through life in her mid-20s. She lived with her boyfriend, Curt in south Seattle. The couple did odd jobs, tried to win money by gambling, and hitchhiked around the area. Gail would occasionally come home with money that Curt assumed she made doing sex work but he wasn’t sure and didn’t want to ask about it. He saw Gail leave the bar they were at together saying she was going to “make some money”. He later saw her in a car with an average looking white guy with a mustache. For some reason the scene chilled him and he knew Gail was in trouble because she looked scared. He waited for Gail to come home but she never appeared. Curt called the police and the Gail’s family. Gail’s ex-husband had custody of their children, but he was worried about the young woman who he remembered as a meandering soul who wanted to be an artist. A missing person report would be filed in April 1983. Andrea M. Childers moved from California to Washington to move in with her father and step mother. She was a wonderful dancer who wanted to be a dance instructor to children. She taught a dance exercise class and was close to her elderly grandmother. At 16 she left her family home and was never seen again. Sandra K. Gabbert was called “Sand-e” by her family and was known as Smurf on the street. She was on the varsity basketball team in high school before dropping out at age 17. Sand-e moved in with her teenage boyfriend and started working on the SeaTac strip. Sand-e told her mother that she made more in turning one trick than she did working a whole week at KFC. Her mother understood her daughter’s desperation and commissioned her to “be careful.” They also talked about taking a trip to sunny California sometime. That was the last time Sand-e and her mother even spoke. Kimi Kai Pitsor street name Melinda was a happy 16-year-old who loved glitter, unicorns, and the color purple which was fitting for the young woman whose native Hawaiian name means “golden sea at dawn.” Kimi Kai always wanted to be an adult and when she turned 16, she left home to move in with her boyfriend/protector in downtown Seattle. Her boyfriend last saw her talking to a date in a blue pickup. She never made it home and her boyfriend called the police with the description of the vehicle. She had left home and entered the scene less than two months before. Tragically, Kimi Kai was the third of Joyce Pitsor’s three children to pass away. Kimi Kai’s two older siblings died as infants. Kimi Kai’s mother, Joyce later adopted three other children. Sandra D. Major was from Rochester, New York. Her family knew she worked as a prostitute and while they weren’t thrilled with her lifestyle, they always kept in touch and “loved her the same.” The last contact the Majors had with Sandra was a post card sent from Seattle. After that they lost touch. Sandra was believed to be last seen on Aurora Avenue north in 1983 at age 20. A TV in program in 2013 highlighted the unidentified victims of the Green River Killer, prompting the family to contact the police. Sandra was identified and laid to rest. The family gave a brief interview in which they asked for privacy. Because of this very little is known about Sandra’s personal life.
Marie Malvar’s came from a large Filipino family. At 18 she had left home but called her parents and siblings regularly. Marie’s boyfriend saw her enter a blue truck and drive away. She was gone a while and he decided to track down the truck. He drove where he saw the truck go but couldn’t find Marie or the vehicle. He was hesitant to contact the police due to their backgrounds and was even more scared to tell Marie’s parents about her profession. After 4 day had passed her boyfriend, brother, and parents went to the police station to report Marie missing. They even drove around with police until they found a similar looking truck. Police questioned the man and took down his information. His name was Gary Ridgway. But Marie wasn’t in his house and he had no record of note, so the police left. The man was one name among hundreds that they took back to the task force offices.
TO BE CONTINUED....
These sources are a good place to begin
Green River Running Red by Ann Rule
The Riverman: Ted Bundy and I hunt for the Green River Killer by Bob Keppel and William Birnes
The Search for the Green River Killer: The True Story of America's Most Prolific Serial Killer by Carlton Smith and Tomas Guillen
https://archive.seattletimes.com/archive/?date=19920727&slug=1504298
http://charleyproject.org/case/keli-kay-mcginness
https://unidentified.wikia.org/wiki/Green_River_victims
https://www.kingcounty.gov/depts/sheriff/about-us/enforcement/investigations/green-river.aspx
http://www.seattlemag.com/article/remembering-victims-green-river-killer
https://archive.seattletimes.com/archive/?date=19911121&slug=1318612
submitted by Quirky-Motor to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2020.05.22 21:26 phdemented The Origin of the Monsters in Dungeons and Dragons - Part 3

This weeks post was going to be for the Letter D, but it's too large for a single post. Instead, today will just be Devils and Demons!
Part 1: Letters A + B
Part 2: Letter C

This is a really interesting block, with a lot of fascinating roots, ranging from ancient times to modern creations. What starts to appear when you look at the overall scope of monsters, is that they tend to fall into one of the following buckets:
While these don't cover all the creatures, it's an interesting observation of where creatures come from and made their way to D&D. With that, we can get to the next batch of creatures...

Origins of Monsters - D

Daemon
Etymology: Greek daimon (“god, power, fate”), from PIE *daimon (“provider, divider of fortune”), possibly from *da- (“to divide, to allot”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: In Greek mythology, daemons are benevolent spirits. They were broken into two groups; agathodaemon (noble spirit, from agathos (“good/brave”)) and kakodaímōn (from kakós (“bad/evil”)). Generally, they were similar to Arabic Jinn and Roman genius. The D&D daemons are closer to the judeo-christian demons of the middle ages, likely inspired by Dante Allegri and other period art. The following Daemons appeared in AD&D
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daemon_(classical_mythology))

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Arcanadaemon (Arcanaloth)
Etymology: Likely from aracana, from the Latin arcanum (“mystery, secret”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown

Charon
Etymology: A poetic shortening of the Greek charopōs (“of keen gaze”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Charon was the ferryman of Hades in Greek mythology, who brought the spirits of the dead across the river Styx and Archeron (which divided the world of the living and the dead). The monster entry makes it clear this is a direct conversion of the Greek myth.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charon

Charonadaemon
Etymology: Same as Charon
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Invented creature that assists Charon

Derghodaemon
Etymology: Possibly from Old Irish derg (“red/crimson”), from PIE derg- (“to dim, darken”). The same root as the English word dark.
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown

Hydrodaemon
Etymology: From the Greek hydro (water)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown, likely called hydrodaemon based on it’s amphibian appearance.

Mezzodaemon (Mezzoloth)
Etymology: Italian mezzo (“half”) + Greek daemon (“spirit”)
First Appearance: Fiend Folio (1981)
Origin: Uncertain; name may be because they inhabit the middle layers of the lower planes along with Nycadaemons.

Nycadaemon (Nycaloth)
Etymology: Possibly from Greek nicto (“night”)
First Appearance: Fiend Folio (1981)
Origin: Uncertain

Oinodaemon (Anthraxus)
Etymology: From Greek anthraks (“an infectious disease of herbivores”). Root of Oinodaemon is uncertain; oînos is Greek for wine, but a connection to the monster is unclear.
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown, but anthrax is a disease common in sheep and cattle. The daemon can cause a powerful disease, and is in charge of various other daemons with disease-based names (Bubonis, Cholerix, Typhus, and Diptherius).

Piscodaemon
Etymology: Likely from picine (“relating to fish”), from the Latin piscis (“fish”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown, but the daemon is a mix of some ocean creatures.

Ultrodaemon (Ultraloth)
Etymology: Possibly from the latin ultro (“afar, beyond”).
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown, but the design of the creature appears similar to the classic “grey alien”, which may fit with the name (from far beyond / outer space)

Yagnodaemon (Yagnoloth)
Etymology: Uncertain; in Hinduism, yajna refers to a ritual sacrifice to the Devas, but there is not a clear connection.
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown (though the art is very reminiscent of the Skrulls or The Abomination from Marvel Comics)
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Demons
Etymology: English demon (“evil spirit, servant of the devil”), from Latin daemōn (“familiar spirit, guardian spirit”), from Greek daímōn (“protective spirit”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Demon refers to different creatures, depending on the time period. The modern usage of the word refers to evil spirits and servants of hell. In Roman and Greek times, a demon was a protective or guardian spirit, that might inhabit a particular location (such as a house spirit) or to a person’s inner spirit (compare to Latin genius). When the region was converted to Christianity, the term was changed to mean an evil spirit. The D&D demons are primarily based on Judeo-Christian lore and mythology of the middle ages. Many pre-Christian gods were called demons as they were considered false-idols. Specific demons in D&D are included below:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demon
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Alu-Demon
First Appearance: First appeared in the tournament version of the S4 - The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth (1976), later in Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: In Akkadian/Sumerian mythology, Alû is a vengeful spirit. It is a demon with no mouth, ears, or lips, that roams the night and terrifies people as they sleep.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al%C3%BB

Babau
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: The babau (or baubau) is a bogeyman like creature from the Mediterranean. Like the bogeyman, it was used as a threat against children who misbehaved. Reaches from Italy to Egypt (where it is called al-Bu'bu)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bogeyman#Babau

Balor
Etymology: Irish, from Celtic boleros (“The Flashing One”)
First Appearance: First appeared (as a Balrog) in the fantasy supplement for Chainmail (1971), first appeared in D&D (as a Balrog) in the original D&D set (1974), and later in the Monster Manual (1977) as a Balor.
Origin: Name of an Irish giant (fomorian). Originally appeared as a Balrog, a powerful demon-like creature of shadow and fire from J.R.R. Tolkien’s Fellowship of the Ring (1954). Chainmail and the original D&D set included many direct lifts from Tolkein (Hobbits, Ents, Orcs, Balrog, etc.) however many names were eventually changed due to legal reasons. The Balrog was renamed the Balor, which is the name of the leader of the Fomorians, a race of monstrous giants that were opponents of the first mythological settlers of Ireland (the Tuath Dé Danann). Balor was a powerful demonic giant, who killed the king of the Tuath Dé, but was slain in turn by his grandson Lugh. The appearance of the Balor is clearly based on the Balrog, even including the Balrog’s sword and many-tailed whip.
“It came to the edge of the fire and the light faded as if a cloud had bent over it. Then with a rush it leaped across the fissure. The flames roared up to greet it, and wreathed about it; and a black smoke swirled in the air. Its streaming mane kindled, and blazed behind it. In its right hand was a blade like a stabbing tongue of fire; in its left it held a whip of many thongs.”
J.R.R. Tolkein, The Fellowship of the Ring, 1954

Bar-Lgura
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Listed in Lewis Spence’s An Encyclopedia of Occultism (1920) as “Bar-Lgura : (Semitic demon ) : Sits on the roofs of houses and leaps on the inhabitants. People so afflicted are called d'baregara.”, though it is unclear what his source for this is.

Demon, Baphomet
Etymology: Medieval Latin baphometh, from Occitan bafometz. A corruption of Mahomet, the Latinisation of Mohammad in the 11th century by crusaders..
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: A likely invented pagan deity/idol created by Christian folklore, from a combination of various older gods. Appeared in the 14th century as a pagan idol during the inquisition of the Knights Templar.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baphomet

Cambion
Etymology: Possibly from the Italian cambio (“exchange, change”) from the Latin cambio (“exchange, barter”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: In medieval mythology, a cambion is a half-human offspring of a demon and a human. Caliban (from Shakespeare’s The Tempest) was a cambion.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambion

Chasme
Etymology: Possibly from the Greek chasme (“Chasm/Abyss”) or the Turkish Chesme (“a water spirit”)
First Appearance: First appeared in the tournament version of the S4 - The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth (1976), later in Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown

Demogorgon
Etymology: Possibly from the Greek daemon (“spirit”) + gorgos (“terrible”). Alternately, a misread of the Greek demiurge (“craftsman”, referring to the creator of the universe), and accusative form of which is dēmiourgón. A name attributed to a pagan god or demon, dating to the 4th century.
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Possible a grammatical error in a translation is the source of the name. The oldest mention of the name is in the commentary of Statius’s Thebaid, made in the 4th century by Lactantius Placidus. In one manuscript, the author says of Statius, Dicit deum Demogorgona summum, cuius scire nomen non licet ("He is speaking of the Demogorgon, the supreme god, whose name it is not permitted to know"). The word took on it’s own life, and by the middle ages, Demogorgon was considered an ancient god, and is referred to in texts as demon, and became incorporated into Christian mythology as a demon of hell.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demogorgon
“Or Spirit of the nethermost Abyss
Might in that noise reside, of whom to ask
Which way the neerest coast of darkness lyes
Bordering on light; when strait behold the Throne
Of Chaos, and his dark Pavilion spread
Wide on the wasteful Deep; with him Enthron'd
Sat Sable-vested Night, eldest of things,
The Consort of his Reign; and by them stood
Orcus and Ades, and the dreaded name
Of Demogorgon; Rumor next and Chance,
And Tumult and Confusion all imbroild,
And Discord with a thousand various mouths.”
-John Milton, Paradise Lost, 1667

Dretch
Etymology: From Middle English dretchen, from Old English dreccan (“to vex/torment/oppress”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown

Fraz-Urb’luu
Etymology: Unknown
First Appearance: First appeared in the tournament version of the S4 - The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth (1976), later in Monster Manual II (1983). Also appeared in Gary Gygax’s Gord novels
Origin: Based on a demon from Gygax’s Castle Greyhawk campaign.

Glabrezu
Etymology: Unknown
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Created by Gary Gygax

Graz’zt
Etymology: Unknown
First Appearance: First appeared in the tournament version of the S4 - The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth (1976), later in Monster Manual II (1983). Also appeared in Gary Gygax’s Gord novels
Origin: Possibly based on a demon from Gygax’s Castle Greyhawk campaign.

Goristro
Etymology: Likely a play on gore (“to pierce with a horn”)
First Appearance: First appeared in Planes of Chaos (1994), a 2nd Edition AD&D Planescape book.
Origin: Unknown, name likely based on its having bull-like horns

Hezrou
Etymology: Unknown
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Created by Gary Gygax

Juiblex
Etymology: Unknown
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Invented by Gary Gygax

Kostchtchie
Etymology: Russian
First Appearance: First appeared in the tournament version of the S4 - The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth (1976), later in Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Russian folklore; Koschei is an antagonist in various Russian stories. He hides his sole inside nested objects to protect it, preventing him from being killed.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koschei

Lolth
First Appearance: First appeared in D1-2 Descent into the Depths of the Earth (1978), later Fiend Folio (1981)
Origin: Created by Gary Gygax

Manes
Etymology: From Latin manes (“spirit of the dead”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: In roman mythology, manes are the souls of the dead, similar to Lates and Lemures. Considered deities of the underworld, Roman graves often included an inscription D.M. (diis manibus, “for the ghost-gods”), or “for the manes”. Manes were offered blood sacrifices, and possibly were honored at gladiatorial games.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manes
“Apuleius "says, indeed, that the souls of men are demons, and that men become Lares if they are good, Lemures or Larvae if they are bad, and Manes if it is uncertain whether they deserve well or ill... He also states that the blessed are called in Greek εὐδαίμονες [eudaimones], because they are good souls, that is to say, good demons, confirming his opinion that the souls of men are demons.”
-Augustine of Hippo, City of God, 5th Century

Marilith
Etymology: Possibly a portmanteau of Mara (a Buddhist demon) and Lilith (a Mesopotamian demoness).
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Appearance evokes images of Hindu and Buddhist demons, with multiple arms and animal features. For example, the battle between Sinbad and Kali (Golden Voyage of Sinbad, 1974) included a 6-arm sword wielded creature.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ROssbvtE41U

Nabassu
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown

Nalfeshnee
Etymology: Unknown
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Created by Gary Gygax

Orcus
Etymology: From the roman god Orcus, from the Greek god Horkos (orkos, “Oath”)
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Orcus was a Roman god of the underworld and punisher of broken oaths. The name was also used as a general term for the underworld (similar to Hades). Being a god of the underworld, he was conflated with demons and hell in Christian lore, and orco became used as a name for any man-eating monster.. It is possible that the French word ogre comes from orco. The name was also used by J.R.R. Tolkein for the race of Orcs.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orcus

Pazuzu
Etymology: Akkadian 𒀭𒅆𒊒𒍪𒍪 pà.zu.zu
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Assyrian/Babylonian, Pazuzu (or Fazuzu/Pazuza) was the king of demons of the wind, son of the god Hanbi. Pazuzu represented the southwestern wind, and was the bearer of storms and drought. The main antagonist of the film The Exorcist was identified as the demon Pazuzu.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pazuzu

Rutterkin
Etymology: Unknown
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Taken from the name of the familiar (the cat) of Joan Flower, one of the witches of Belvoir. The witches of Belvoir were three women in England accused of witchcraft in 1619.
http://www.thebookofdays.com/months/march/11.htm

Succubus
Etymology: From Latin succuba (“strumpet”), from succubare (“to lie under”) from sub (“under”) + cubara (“to lie down”).
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: A demon or spirit from the Middle Ages, that would seduce men. The male incarnate was called an incubus.

Vrock
Etymology: From Swedish vråk (“vulture”)
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977)

Yeenoghu
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Created by Gary Gygax

Yochlol (Handmaiden of Lolth)
First Appearance: First appeared in the module Q1 – Queen of the Demonweb Pits (Sutherland/Gygax), later in Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown inspiration
_____________________________________________________________


Devils
Etymology: From Old English dēofol, from Ancient Greek diabolos (“accuser, slanderer”) from dia (“across”) + bállō (“throw”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: A mix of various Judeo-Christian demons. In Christian mythology, the Devil is used as another name for the Judeo-Christian Satan (from Hebrew satán, “Opponent”), though it can slo be used to describe any evil being. The devils in D&D are (like the demons) based on a range of demonic characters from mythology.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devil
_____________________________________________________________

Abishai
Etymology: Hebrew (“Father of a gift”)
First Appearance: First appeared in Dragon #75, later in Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Abishai was a Biblical figure, a nephew of King David, and was a military leader under David. In the book of Samuel, there is the following passage of King David rebuking Abishai: “What have I to do with you, O sons of Zeruiah, that you should this day be an adversary to me? Should any man be put to death in Israel today?” (2 Sa 19:22). In Hebrew, the word adversary is satan, which may be how Abishai’s name became associated with the devil, though in context it is clear this is not the literal meaning of the passage.

Amon
Etymology: Egyptian
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Amun (Amon) was an Egyptian deity and patron of Thebes. As Amun-Ra, he was a creator deity and became viewed as the chief deity above the other Egyptian gods. Later, Amon was listed as a demon in the Ars Goetia (a section of the Lesser Key of Solomon, a 17th century grimoire). Amon was a Marquis of hell, who appeared as a wolf with a serpent’s tail or a man with a dog’s teeth in the head of a raven.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amun

Asmodeus
Etymology: From Greek asmodaios or from Hebrew asgmedai, possibly from Avestan aēšma-daēva (“wrath demon”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: In Judeo-Islamic lore, Asmodeus is a prince of demons or the king of earthly spirits (shedim/jinn). Possibly taken from the Zoroastrian aēšma-daēva, a demon of wrath.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asmodeus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeshma

Baalzebul
Etymology: From Latin, beelzebub, from the Hebrew ba'al zebub (“lord of the flies”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Taken from the name of a Philistine god, worshiped in Ekron, which was adapted in Abrahamic religion as a demon. Often associated with the Canaanite god Ba’al. In Christian lore, it may be used as another name for the Devil, or a name of a demon in hell. In ancient Semetic languages, Baal/Ba’al is an honorific that means “Lord” and used to identify several gods.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beelzebub

Dispater
Etymology: From Latin Dis (“wealthy”) + Pater (father).
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: In Roman mythology, Dis Pater was a roman god of the underworld. The name was sometimes shortened to simply Dis, which became used as a name for the underworld (similar to Hades and Hell, which are named after the Greek and Nordic gods Hades and Hel). In Dante’s *The Inferno (*1320), the lower levels of Hell are referred to as the City of Dis.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C4%ABs_Pater

Bael
Etymology: Semitic Ba’al (Lord), used for various patron gods.
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: In the Ars Goetia (17th century), Baal/Bael was the King of Hell. He had three heads (toad/man/cat). The name was taken from Baal-berith (Lord of the Covenant), a god worshipped in ancient Israel, mentioned in the Bible.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bael_(demon))

Barbed Devil (Hamatula)
Etymology: Uncertain, but if based on Barbatos/Barbas, then Barbed would be from the Latin barbatus (“bearded”).
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Possibly based on Barbatos, one of the dukes up hell listed in the Ars Goetia (17th century), or Barbas (a president of hell) from the save source. Source of Hamatula is uncertain.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbatos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marbas

Belial
Etymology: Hebrew Bəlīyaʿal (“worthless”), from beli (“without”) + ya’al (“value”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: A term in the Hebrew Bible to refer to "worthless men" such as idolaters and the wicked sons of Eli, later personified as a demon, such as in John Milton’s Paradise Lost (1667) and the Lesser Key of Solomon.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belial

Bearded Devil (Barbazu)
Etymology: Latin barbatus (“bearded”).
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Possibly based on Barbatos, one of the dukes up hell listed in the Ars Goetia (17th century), or Barbas (a president of hell) from the save source (see Barbed Devil)

Bone Devil (Osyluth)
Etymology: From the root osteo (“bone”), from Greek ostéon (“bone”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Uncertain

Chain Devil (Kyton)
Etymology: Uncertain
First Appearance: Monstrous Compendium Annual, Volume Three (1996, 2nd edition AD&D)
Origin: Uncertain

Erinyes
Etymology: from Greek erinys (“Avengers”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: The Erinyes also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance in ancient Greek religion and mythology. A formulaic oath in the Iliad invokes them as "the Erinyes, that under earth take vengeance on men, whosoever hath sworn a false oath".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erinyes

Glasya
Etymology: Uncertain
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: In demonology, Glasya-Labolas is a Count or President of Hell, depicted as a dog with the wings of an eagle (see The Lesser Key of Solomon).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasya-Labolas

Geryon:
Etymology: Greek
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Name of a giant of Greek myth, the grandson of Medusa. Described as a monster with human faces, and various numbers of heads, limbs, and wings, depending on the teller. Heracles encounters Geryon in his 10th labor, and slays the giant with an arrow dipped in the venomous blood of the Lernaean Hydra. In Dante’s The Inferno, Geyron appears as the “Monster of Fraud”, with dragon-like wings and the body of a wyvern including a poisonous tail. The appearance in the Monster Manual closely matches Dante’s version.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geryon

Horned Devil (Malebranche)
Etymology: Italian malebranche (“evil claws”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: In Dante’s Divine Comedy, they are quarrelsome demons who punish corrupt politicians.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malebranche_(Divine_Comedy))

Hutijin
Etymology: Unknown
First Appearance: First appeared in Dragon #75, later in Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown

Ice Devil (Gelugon)
Etymology: Uncertain; in A Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language (1888), it is defined as “falsified”, but no clear connection to the creature can be found.
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Uncertain, but in Dante’s Divine Comedy, the innermost rings of hell are frozen, with Lucifer himself trapped in a lake of ice.

Lemure
Etymology: From Latin lemures (“spirits of the night”), evil spirits of the dead.
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: In Roman mythology, lemures may represent the wandering and vengeful spirits of those not afforded proper burial, funeral rites or affectionate cult by the living: they are thus not attested by tomb or votive inscriptions. Ovid interprets them as vagrant, unsatiated and potentially vengeful di manes or di parentes, ancestral gods or spirits of the underworld.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemures

Mammon
Etymology: Possibly from Late Latin mammon, from Greek mammonas, from Aramaic māmōnā (“riches”), from Hebrew mamón (“money”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: A personified deity of wealth and greed; appears in the Christian New Testament.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammon

Mephistopheles
Etymology: Likely a made up name, portmanteau of Hebrew mepthitz (“destroyer”) + German tophel (“liar”) or Greek me (“negating”) + phos (“light”) + philis (“loving”), meaning "not loving light" (a parody of Lucifer).
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: A demon of German folklore. Originates from the 16th century legend of Faust; a man who wagers his soul with the devil (named Mephistopheles). Based (loosely) on a real person (Dr Johann Georg Faust 1480-1540).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mephistopheles

Moloch
Etymology: From the Semitic root m-l-k (“king”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: An ancient Ammonite god, worshipped by the Canaanites and Phoenicians. In the Hebrew Bible (Deuteronomy/Leviticus), Moloch is an example of idolatry, associated with child sacrifice.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moloch

Nupperibo
Etymology: Japanese
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: The name is taken from Japanese mythology. The Noppera-bo is a faceless ghost (yokai) that takes delight in terrifying the living, but is otherwise harmless.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noppera-b%C5%8D

Pit Fiend
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Uncertain, design is of a generic classic demonic creature, but it is not clearly linked to any source.

Spined Devil (Spinagon)
Etymology: Uncertain, but Spinagon is likely just a twist on “spine”
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown

Styx
Etymology: The river Styx, in Greek mythology.
First Appearance: Fiend Folio (1981)
Origin: Uncertain, but the river Styx exists in Hades, later associated with hell.

Titivilus
Etymology: Uncertain
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: A demon who was blamed for introducing errors into the works of scribes. First referenced in 1285. Described as collecting idle chat or skipped words during service, taking them to hell to be counted against the offenders.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titivillus
submitted by phdemented to DnD [link] [comments]


2020.05.18 18:22 bt1234yt WarnerMedia has just announced what titles from Criterion will be available on HBO Max at launch

I got the info from here (scroll down to where it says "Criterion Collection").
Full list for those who don't want to leave Reddit is as follows:

...And God Created Woman
16 Days of Glory
2 or 3 Things I Know About Her
The 3 Penny Opera
The 39 Steps
The 400 Blows
The 47 Ronin: Part 1
The 47 Ronin: Part 2
Ali: Fear Eats the Soul
Amarcord
An Angel at my Table
Ashes and Diamonds
Atlanta’s Olympic Glory
Au Revior Les Enfants
Autumn Sonata
Babette’s Feast
Battle of Algiers
Battleship Potemkin
The Beales of Grey Gardens
Beauty and the Beast
Belle De Jour
Bicycle Thieves
The Bitter Tears of Petra Von Kant
Black Girl
Black Narcissus
Black Orpheus
Blithe Spirit
The Blob
Blood Simple
Breaking the Waves
Breathless
Brief Encounter
A Brief History of Time
The Brood
Brute Force
Buena Vista Social Club
Calgary ‘88: 16 Days of Glory
Carnival of Souls
Chimes at Midnight
La Ciénaga
The Circus
City Lights
Cleo from 5 to 7
Cranes are Flying
Cries and Whispers
Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment
Cronos
Daisies
A Day in the Country
A Day’s Pleasure
The Daytrippers
Dead Man
Desert Hearts
Destroy All Monsters
Diabolique
Divorce Italian Style
A Dog’s Life
Don’t Look Back
Down by Law
The Earrings of Madame De
Eating Raoul
Ebirah, Horror of the Deep
Elevator to the Gallows
The Emporer Jones
The Entertainer
Equinox
Eraserhead
Europa
Europe ‘51
Eyes Without a Face
F is for Fake
Faces
Fanny and Alexander
Fantastic Planet
Fat Girl
First Man Into Space
For All Mankind
Foreign Correspondant
The Four Feathers
Fox and His Friends
The Front Page
Funny Games
George Stevens: A Filmmakers Journey
George Stevens: D-Day to Berlin
Germany Year Zero
Gidorah, The Three Headed Monster
Gimmer Shelter
Godzilla
Godzilla Raids Again
Godzilla vs Mechadodzilla
Godzilla vs Megalon
Godzilla vs Gigan
Godzilla vs Hedorah
Godzilla, King of the Monsters!
The Gold Rush
The Gold Rush: 1942 Version
The Grand Olympics
Gray’s Anatomy
The Great Dictator
Great Expectations
Grey Gardens
Hamlet
Hanzo the Razor: Sword of Justice
Hanzo the Razor: The Snare
Hanzo the Razor: Who’s Got the Gold?
A Hard Day’s Night
Harlan County U.S.A
Haxan: Witchcraft Through the Ages
Hearts and Minds
Henry V
The Hidden Fortress
Hobson’s Choice
The Honeymoon Killers
Hoop Dreams
House
I Married a Witch
I Shot Jesse James
I Was a Teenage Zombie
The Idle Class
Ikiru
The Immigrant
In the Mood for Love
In Vanda’s Room
Intermezzo
Invasion of Astro-Monster
Irma Vep
Ivan the Terrible Part 1
Ivan the Terrible Part 2
Jubilee
Jules and Jim
Juliet of the Spirits
The Jungle Book
The Kid
Kill!
The Killing of a Chinese Bookie
A king in New York
The King of Kings
Knife in the Water
Kwaidan
Lady Snowblood
Lady Snowblood 2: Love Song of Vengeance
The Lady Vanishes
L’Amore
L’Argent
The Last Emperor
The Last Metro
The Last Wave
Late Autumn
Late Spring
L’Avventura
Lillehammer ‘94: Days of Glory
Limelight
The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog
Lola
Lola Montes
Lone Wolf and Cub: Baby Cart at the River Styx
Lone Wolf and Cub: Baby Cart in Peril
Lone Wolf and Cub: Baby Cart to Hades
Lone Wolf and Cub: Baby in the Land of Demons
Lone Wolf and Cub: Sword of Vengence
Lone Wolf and Cub: White Heaven in Hell
Loneliness of the Long Distance
The Runner
The Long Voyage Home
Look Back in Anger
Lord of the Flies
The Lost Honor of Katarina Blum
Love in the Afternoon
Major Barbara
Man Bites Dog
The Man Who Knew Too Much
Marriage of Maria Braun
Masculin Feminin
Metropolitan
Mikey and Nicky
Modern Times
Mon Oncle
Mona Lisa
Monsieur Hulot’s Holiday
Monsieur Verdoux
Monterey Pop
The Most Dangerous Game
Motha vs Godzilla
Mr. Arkadin
Multiple Maniacs
My Brilliant Career
My Dinner with Andre
My Life as a Dog
My Night at Maud’s
Nagano ‘98 Olympics: Stories of Honor and Glory
The Naked City
The Naked Kiss
Nanook of the North
Nice and Friendly
A Night in the Show
Night of the Living Dead
Of Mice and Men
Oliver Twist
Onibaba
Paris, Texas
Pather Panchali
Pay Day
Pepe Le Moko
Permanent Vacation
Persona
Picnic at Hanging Rock
The Pilgrim
The Player
Police Story
Primary
The Private Life of Henry the VIII
Pygmalion
Quadrophenia
Querelle
Rashomon
The Red Ballon
Red Desert
The Red Shoes
Rembrandt
The Return of Bulldog Drummond
Return of the Scarlet Pimpernel
Richard III
The Rink
The Rise of Catherine the Great
The Rite
The River
Rodan
Rome Open City
A Room with a View
The Ruling Class
Sabotage
Safety Last!
Salesman
Le Samourai
Samurai Trilogy 1: Musashi Miyamoto
Samurai Trilogy 2: Duel at Ichijoji Temple
Samurai Trilogy 3: Duel at Ganryu Island
Satan’s Brew
Sawdust and Tinsel
Scanners
The Scarlet Pimpernel
Scenes From a Marriage
Schizopolis
Seance on a Wet Afternoon
Secrets and Lies
Senso
Seoul 1988
Seven Samurai
Seventh Seal
The Seventh Veil
Shadows
Shock Corridor
Shoot the Piano Player
The Shooting
The Shop on Main Street
Shoulder Arms
Sisters
Smithereens
Solaris
Son of Godzilla
Speedy
Stagecoach
La Strada
Stranger Than Paradise
The Stranger
Stromboli
Summertime
Sunnyside
Sweetie
Taste of Cherry
A Taste of Honey
Terror of Mechagodzilla
The Testement of Dr Mabuse
That Hamilton Woman
The Thief of Bagdad
Three Colors: Blue
Three Colors: Red
Three Colors: White
Throne of Blood
Through a Glass Darkly
Time Me Up! Time Me Down!
Time Bandits
The Times of Harvey Milk
The Tin Drum
To Be or not To Be
Tokyo Olympiad
Tokyo Story
Tom Jones
The Trial of Joan of Arc
True Stories
Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me
Two English Girls
Ugetsu
Umberto D.
The Umbrellas of Cherbourg
Under the Volacno
Vampyr
Victim
Vivre Sa Vie
Voyage to Italy
The Wages of Fear
War and Peace
The War of the Gargantuas
The War Room
Watership Down
Weekend
Wild Strrawberries
Wings of Desire
Wise Blood
Withnail and I
A Woman of Paris
A Woman Under the Influencer
The X From Outer Space
Yojimbo
Young and Innocent
Young Girls
Z
submitted by bt1234yt to criterion [link] [comments]


2020.05.02 00:51 zlaxy Modern Iceland have massive glacier where old maps had cities

Modern Iceland have massive glacier where old maps had cities

https://preview.redd.it/9l0rev8zf8w41.jpg?width=923&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b3529525388a7143d056122634ef5d0f162608fb
On old maps, the area of the largest glacier Vatnajökull, east of the most active on the island volcano Hekla, is filled with unknown settlements.
Today, the thickness of this massive glacier is estimated at 380 meters. The first time this large glacier under its present name began to appear on maps about 150 years ago.
https://preview.redd.it/kiji8ed0g8w41.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1db71cb29d0da883e3c78744497e9e3a72feb91f
Map by Jules Leclercq

Even earlier, about 250 years ago, on the Danish map of Jón Eiríksson and Gerhard Schøning the monolithic glacier Klofajökull was first marked, in the southeast of modern Vatnajökull, but smaller in size.
https://preview.redd.it/ebkygkl1g8w41.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1ebbb5bbc5e26ebeaf632202c8dba00a8fde9c06
Map by Gerhard Schøning an Jón Eiríksson

But older maps (over 350 years old) show smaller glaciers in this region, but in the center of the modern Vatnajökull glacier there is a valley with cities. The map is 390 years old and was attributed to Dutchman Joan Blaeu.
https://preview.redd.it/02528tf2g8w41.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1f5d8a2a665be5751252da90e65214413dc352d3
Map by Joan Blaeu

The map is attributed to a famous man from County of Flanders, Gerardus Mercator, 425 years old.
https://preview.redd.it/dkb87po3g8w41.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=d653cdc92fe97326118724b2c92f73b7f7174144
Map by Gerardus Mercator

Map attributed to Flemish Abraham Ortelius (author of the first historical atlas) 435 years ago.
https://preview.redd.it/ceyti0y4g8w41.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=cdfbd319402195305f692e60c7b1c28bf2a5863c
Map by Abraham Ortelius.jpg)

It is noteworthy that all these ancient maps show the now active Hekla Volcano, but to the east of it instead of a large glacier there are small glaciers ("hokel"), rivers and city names unknown today: Poma Gunpur, Breidt, Medallandt, Kirkebar Closter, Heirskeid and others (with western and northern parts of Iceland more in line with modern topography). It is likely that all of these past mappers were either fantastical or extremely inaccurate in their maps, or, in general, all of these maps are fakes. But also likely they to have correctly mapped the territory of Iceland of their time, and their maps are evidence of climate change over the past several centuries, and under the ice cover of the Vatnajökull Glacier are this mapped cities. It is also noteworthy that these topographical changes coincide with the natural appearance and increase of the mention of the word Iceland (root: ice) in English. At the same time, most of these maps refer to this land as Island/Islandia (root: island). Also, in my opinion, it is worth noting that on older maps, Iceland is surrounded by smaller islands.
On some even older maps, Iceland is designated as "Islant Thule", more abundant in rivers and lakes, the Faroe Islands are designated southeast of it, and in the southwest, the large Frisland Island (now considered phantomly), marked on the site of today's Rockall Sandbank, echoes the name of the Frisians. German map by an unknown author circa 430 years ago.
https://preview.redd.it/2t2320v5g8w41.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c524c0c452f00414007518ca03679b6bc6ae5899
Map by unknown author

And also a map attributed to Ortelius, but dated earlier than the previous one, 450 years ago.
https://preview.redd.it/g319kq97g8w41.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=af19316b10f473c4833ac921be7862e86cd995f7
Map by Abraham Ortelius

Thanks to [email protected] for this interesting observation
submitted by zlaxy to VisitingIceland [link] [comments]


2020.04.24 01:33 cooklanbrahh Free Movies Digital Codes Giveaway Megathread #5 [VUDU, iTunes, Movies Anywhere 4K etc]

Generate codes at https://oppfiles.com/710511
Innocence (2002) Innocent Voices (2005) Insaaf: The Justice (2004) Inside Llewyn Davis (2014) Inside Man (2006) Inside Out (3D) (2015) Inside Out (1998) Inside Out (2011) Inside Out (2015) Insider, The (2000) Insidious: Chapter 2 (2013) Insidious: Chapter 3 (2015) Insidious: The Last Key (2018) Insidious (2011) Insomnia (2002) Inspector Gadget (1999) Instant Family (2018) Instinct (1999) Instructions Not Included (2014) Intacto (2003) Intermission (2004) International, The (2009) Internship, The (2013) Intern, The (2015) Interpreter, The (2005) Interstellar (IMAX) (2014) Interstellar (2014) Interview, The (2015) Interview (2007) Intimacy (2001) Into Great Silence (2008) Into the Arms of Strangers (2001) Into the Blue (2005) Into the Storm (2014) Into the Wild (2008) Into the Woods (2015) Intolerable Cruelty (2003) Intonga (2009) Intouchables, The (2013) Intruder, The (2019) Invasion, The (2007) Inventing the Abbotts (1997) Investigating Sex (2003) Invictus (2009) Invincible (2007) Invisible Circus (2001) Invisible Man (IMAX), The (2020) Invisible Man, The (2020) Invisible Woman, The (2014) Inxeba (The Wound) (2017) Inxeba (The Wound) (2018) Ip Man 4: The Finale (2020) Iqbal (2006) Ira Mugan (2016) Irandaam Ulagam (2013) Iris Blond (1999) Iris (2002) Iron Giant, The (1999) Iron Ladies, The (2001) Iron Lady, The (2012) Iron Man 2 (2010) Iron Man 3 (3D) (2013) Iron Man 3 (2013) Iron Man (2008) Irrational Man (2016) Irumbu Thirai (2018) Ishq Forever (2016) Ishq Vishk (2003) Island of Doctor Moreau, The (1997) Island of the Sharks (2001) Island, The (2005) Isle of Dogs (2018) Isn't She Great (2000) It (4DX) (2017) It (IMAX) (2017) It All Starts Today (2000) It Chapter Two (4DX) (2019) It Chapter Two (IMAX) (2019) It Chapter Two (2019) It's Complicated (2010) It's Entertainment (2014) It's a Boy Girl Thing (2007) It's a Free World... (2008) It's a Wonderful Afterlife (2010) Italian Job, The (2003) Italian for Beginners (2002) Ittefaq (2017) It (2017) Izulu Lami — My Secret Sky (2009) I (2015) iNumber Number (2014) J J. Edgar (2012) Jaan-E-Mann (2006) Jaane Tu Ya Jaane Na (2008) Jab Harry met Sejal (2017) Jab Tak Hai Jaan (2012) Jab We Met (2007) Jabariya Jodi (2019) Jack Reacher: Never Go Back (IMAX) (2016) Jack Reacher: Never Go Back (2016) Jack Reacher (2012) Jack Ryan: Shadow Recruit (IMAX) (2014) Jack Ryan: Shadow Recruit (2014) Jack and Jill (2012) Jack the Giant Slayer (3D) (2013) Jack the Giant Slayer (2013) Jackal, The (1998) Jackass 3D (2010) Jackass Number Two (2007) Jackass Presents: Bad Grandpa (2013) Jackass: The Movie (2003) Jacket, The (2005) Jackie Brown (1998) Jackie (2017) Jacob's Ladder (2020) Jadoo (2015) Jagga Jasoos (2017) Jagveld (2017) Jai Gangaajal (2016) Jai Ho (2014) Jai Lava Kusa (2017) Jai Mummy Di (2020) Jakes Are Missing, The (2015) Jakhalsdans (2010) Jakob the Liar (1999) Janaan (2016) Janasheen (2003) Jane Austen Book Club, The (2008) Jane Eyre (2011) Jane Goodall's Wild Chimpanzees (2004) Jane Got a Gun (2016) Jane's Journey (2011) Jannat 2 (2012) Jannat: In Search of Heaven (2008) Japanese Story (2004) Jarhead (2006) Jason Bourne (2016) Jason X (2002) Jawaani Jaaneman (2020) Jawani Phir Nahi Ani 2 (2018) Jawbreaker (1999) Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back (2002) Jayantabhai Ki Luv Story (2013) Jazbaa (2015) Jeanne & the Perfect Guy (1999) Jeepers Creepers II (2004) Jeepers Creepers (2001) Jeff, Who Lives at Home (2012) Jennifer's Body (2009) Jenny's Wedding (2015) Jersey Boys (2014) Jersey Girl (2004) Jerusalema (2008) Jerusalem (1997) Jessabelle (2014) Jesus Camp (2007) Jesus' Son (2000) Jet Li's Fearless (2007) Jexi (2019) Jhoom Barabar Jhoom (2007) Jhootha Hi Sahi (2010) Jigarthanda (2014) Jigsaw (2017) Jilla (2014) Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius (2002) Jimmy in Pienk (2013) Joan of Arc (2000) Jobs (2013) Jock of the Bushveld (3D) (2011) Jock of the Bushveld (2011) Jodhaa Akbar (2008) Jodi Breakers (2012) Joe Dirt (2001) Joe Gould's Secret (2001) Joe Somebody (2002) John Carpenter's Vampires (1999) John Carter (3D) (2012) John Carter (2012) John Q (2002) John Rambo (2008) John Tucker Must Die (2006) John Wick: Chapter 2 (2017) John Wick: Chapter 3 - 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(2005) Mimic (1997) Mindhunters (2005) Miners Shot Down (2014) Mini's First Time (2006) Minions (3D) (2015) Minions (2015) Minority Report (2002) Minus Man, The (2000) Miracles from Heaven (2016) Miral (2011) Mirror Mirror (2012) Mirrors (2008) Mirzya: Dare to Love (2016) Miss Bala (2019) Miss Congeniality 2: Armed and Fabulous (2005) Miss Congeniality (2001) Miss Julie (2000) Miss March (2009) Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children (3D) (2016) Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children (4DX) (2016) Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children (2016) Miss Pettigrew Lives for a Day (2008) Miss Potter (2007) Miss Sloane (2017) Miss You Already (2016) Missing Lynx, The (2009) Missing, The (2004) Missing (2018) Mission Istaanbul (2008) Mission Mangal (2019) Mission to Mars (2000) Mission: Impossible — Ghost Protocol (2011) Mission: Impossible — Rogue Nation (IMAX) (2015) Mission: Impossible — Rogue Nation (2015) Mission: Impossible - Fallout (3D IMAX) (2018) Mission: Impossible - Fallout (3D) (2018) Mission: Impossible - Fallout (4DX) (2018) Mission: Impossible - Fallout (2018) Mission: Impossible 2 (2000) Mission: Impossible III (2006) Mississippi Grind (2015) Mistress America (2015) Mistress of Spices, The (2006) Mitr, My Friend (2002) Moana (3D) (2016) Moana (2016) Mobutu (1999) Mod Squad, The (1999) Modder en Bloed (2016) Moffie (2019) Moffie (2020) Mohenjo Daro (2016) Mojo (1998) Molly & Wors: Die Movie (2013) Molly Moon and the Incredible Book of Hypnotism (2015) Molly's Game (2018) Molly (2000) Mommy (2015) Moms' Night Out (2014) Mom (2017) Mon Homme (1997) Mona Lisa Smile (2004) Money Hai Toh Honey Hai (2008) Money Monster (2016) Money Talks (1997) Moneyball (2011) Monkeybone (2001) Monsieur Lazhar (2012) Monsoon Wedding (2002) Monster Calls, A (2017) Monster Family (3D) (2018) Monster Family (2018) Monster House (2006) Monster Trucks (3D) (2017) Monster Trucks (2017) Monster in Paris (3D), A (2012) Monster in Paris, A (2012) Monster's Ball (2002) Monster-in-Law (2005) Monsters University (3D) (2013) Monsters University (2013) Monsters vs Aliens 3D (2009) Monsters vs Aliens (2009) Monsters, Inc (2001) Monster (2004) Monte Carlo (2011) Monty Python Live (Mostly) (2014) Monuments Men, The (2014) Mooirivier (2015) Moonlight Mile (2003) Moonlight (2017) Moonrise Kingdom (2012) Moon (2009) More Than Just a Game (2008) Morgan (2016) Morning Glory (2011) Morning Light (2009) Mortal Engines (3D IMAX) (2018) Mortal Engines (3D) (2018) Mortal Engines (2018) Mortal Instruments: City of Bones, The (2013) Mortal Kombat: Annihilation (1998) Mortdecai (2015) Mosley (2020) Most Violent Year, A (2015) Most Wanted Man, A (2014) Most Wanted (1998) Mostly Martha (2002) Mother and Child (2010) Mother's Day (2016) Motherless Brooklyn (2019) Mother, The (2004) Mother (1997) Mothman Prophecies (2002) Motorcycle Diaries, The (2005) Moulin Rouge (2001) Mountain Between Us, The (2017) Mouse Hunt (1998) Movie 43 (2013) Mr Bones (2001) Mr Magoo (1998) Mr Nice Guy (1998) Mr Reliable (1997) Mr. & Mrs. Smith (2005) Mr. Bean's Holiday (2007) Mr. Bones 2: Back From the Past (2008) Mr. Brooks (2007) Mr. Death (2001) Mr. Deeds (2002) Mr. Holmes (2015) Mr. Magorium's Wonder Emporium (2007) Mr. Majnu (2019) Mr. Morgan's Last Love (2014) Mr. Peabody & Sherman (3D) (2014) Mr. Peabody & Sherman (2014) Mr. Pip (2014) Mr. Popper's Penguins (2011) Mr. Right (2016) Mr. Turner (2014) Mr. White Mr. Black (2008) Mr. Woodcock (2007) Mr. X (3D) (2015) Mr. X (2015) Mr.Local (2019) Mrs Brown (1997) Mrs Dalloway (1998) Mrs Right Guy (2016) Mrs. Henderson Presents (2006) Mrs. Ratcliffe's Revolution (2008) Mubarakan (2017) Mud (2013) Mujhse Dosti Karoge (2002) Mujhse Shaadi Karogi (2004) Mukkabaaz (2018) Mulan (3D IMAX) (2020) Mulan (3D) (2020) Mulan (1998) Mulan (2020) Mule, The (2019) Mulholland Drive (2002) Mulk (2018) Mumbai Mirror (2013) Mumbai Se Aaya Mera Dost (2003) Mummies: Secrets of the Pharaohs (2008) Mummy (3D), The (2017) Mummy (4DX), The (2017) Mummy (IMAX), The (2017) Mummy Returns, The (2001) Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor, The (2008) Mummy, The (1999) Mummy, The (2017) Mundasupatti (2014) Munich (2006) Munna Bhai M.B.B.S (2003) Munna Michael (2017) Muppets From Space (2000) Muppets Most Wanted (2014) Muppets, The (2012) Murder 3 (2013) Murder at 1600 (1997) Murder by Numbers (2002) Murder in Mind (1997) Murder on the Orient Express (2017) Murderball (2006) Muse, The (1999) Music From Another Room (1999) Music Never Stopped, The (2011) Music and Lyrics (2007) Music of the Heart (2000) Musiek vir die Agtergrond (2013) Musketeer, The (2001) Must Love Dogs (2005) Mutant Chronicles (2010) Mutual Needs (1998) My Afternoons with Margueritte (2012) My Baby's Daddy (2005) My Best Friend's Girl (2008) My Best Friend's Wedding (1997) My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2 (2016) My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002) My Blind Date with Life (2018) My Bloody Valentine 3D (2009) My Blueberry Nights (2008) My Boss's Daughter (2003) My Cousin Rachel (2017) My Father the Hero (1999) My Father's War (2016) My Favourite Martian (1999) My Hunter's Heart (2011) My Life So Far (1999) My Life Without Me (2004) My Life in Ruins (2009) My Little Eye (2003) My Little Pony: The Movie (3D) (2017) My Little Pony: The Movie (2017) My Mother Frank (2001) My Name is Anthony Gonsalves (2008) My Name is Joe (1999) My Name is Khan (2010) My Old Lady (2014) My Sister's Keeper (2009) My Son the Fanatic (1999) My Spy (2020) My Super Ex-Girlfriend (2006) My Week with Marilyn (2012) My Wife & I (2017) My Words, My Lies — My Love (2011) Mysteries of Egypt (2001) Mysterious Skin (2005) Mystery Men (1999) Mystery of the Nile (2005) Mystery, Alaska (2000) Mystic India (2005) Mystic River (2003) Myth of Fingerprints, The (1998) Mzansi 'Black Tax' - 'iMbali' Double Feature (2018) Mzansi 'Imoto Yokufa' - 'Umqhele' Double Feature (2018) mother! (2017)
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What's Joan Rivers not had done? - The Graham Norton Show ... Joan Rivers - Swimming With Sharks - YouTube Joan Rivers moments before Surgery 2012 - No Makeup - YouTube Girlfriends  Joan Is Dating A Movie Star  CW Seed - YouTube Joan Rivers on The Ed Sullivan Show - YouTube The Late Show Starring Joan Rivers - Pee Wee Herman 1987 ... FILE: JOAN RIVERS JOKES MRS OBAMA 'IS A TRANS' - YouTube

  1. What's Joan Rivers not had done? - The Graham Norton Show ...
  2. Joan Rivers - Swimming With Sharks - YouTube
  3. Joan Rivers moments before Surgery 2012 - No Makeup - YouTube
  4. Girlfriends Joan Is Dating A Movie Star CW Seed - YouTube
  5. Joan Rivers on The Ed Sullivan Show - YouTube
  6. The Late Show Starring Joan Rivers - Pee Wee Herman 1987 ...
  7. FILE: JOAN RIVERS JOKES MRS OBAMA 'IS A TRANS' - YouTube

Joan Rivers performed on The Ed Sullivan Show on April 23, 1967. Subscribe now to never miss an update: https://ume.lnk.to/EdSullivanSubscribe Watch more Com... Subscribe and 🔔 to OFFICIAL BBC YouTube 👉 https://bit.ly/2IXqEIn Stream original BBC programmes FIRST on BBC iPlayer 👉 https://bbc.in/2J18jYJ Find out more: ... Talk about Fourth of July fireworks Joan Rivers calls the Obamas stunning names. To License This Clip, Click Here: http://collection.cnn.com/content/clip/370... The late and great Joan Rivers describes how much she loves Montreal, roasts Mexico , and then goes into detail about her beef with Adele. Joan Rivers stand ... *I do not own the copyright this video* Original aired May 6,1987 Pee-wee and Joan Rivers are making live crank phone calls on Joan's show Guest stars Pee We... Watch full episodes for free on CW Seed. About Girlfriends: Four African-American women from different walks of life find love, go through tumultuous breakup... This scene was recorded in 2011 and was aired on season 2 of 'Joan knows Best' in Feb. 2012. This was not the surgery she underwent before she was having a r...